Flashcards in S1 - Landscapes and Physical Processes (C1) Deck (50)
What makes a landscape distinctive ?
How different features and landforms combine to give it it's special or distinctive appearance.
What are some upland landscapes in the UK ?
Snowdonia, llanberis pass (north wales) and southern uplands and the lake district - both mountainous and valley landscapes.
What are some lowland landscapes in the UK ?
Gwent levels (south wales) and the pennines and southern wales - both plateau and valley landscapes.
What is an upland landscape ?
One that is hilly or mountainous.
What is a lowland landscape ?
An area of land lower than the land around it.
What are some river landscapes in the UK ?
River conwy - near betws-y-coed, and the river severn - at minsterworth near gloucester.
What are some coastal landscapes in the UK ?
Stair hole - in dorset, and the ynyslas sand dunes.
What features of an area make it distinctive ?
Both human and physical features, including the geology, people and culture, vegetation and the land use.
What is unique about the geology of snowdonia ?
Upland landscape shaped by volcanic eruptions and extensive glaciation, glacial features such as corries, U-shaped valleys and aretes, mountain range dropping quickly to sea, and containing highest mountain in wales - snowdon 1085m.
How is the land use in snowdonia unique ?
Areas of land shaped by slate mining, large areas of agriculture and forestry, and national park status - attracting many tourists leading to many tourist facilities.
How is snowdonia's vegetation distinctive ?
Varied plant and animal life due to various environments and habitats found, rare species such as snowdon lily and snowdon beetle, and large areas of deciduous forests.
How does the people and culture in snowdonia make it distinctive ?
A rich cultural history with world heritage sites including celtic shrines and fortresses, and widely spoken welsh language.
What positive impact does human activity have on the natural environment ?
Visitors to the countryside bring benefits to rural economies through money they spend.
How can human activity negatively impact the natural environment ?
Visitor pressure may adversely affect the landscape and local communities.
Why do honeypot sites experience environmental challenges ?
Their carrying capacity is often exceed causing damage to the local area and resources.
What is a honeypot site ?
A place of special interest that attracts a large number of tourists.
What does increased visitor pressure mean ?
There's an increased impact on the landscape, resources and services due to the increase in people due to tourism.
What is carrying capacity ?
The maximum population size that an environment can reliably sustain.
What are the benefits of tourism in snowdonia ?
The investment in tourism industry creates jobs and diversifies farming economy and an increase in rural income from high number of tourists in area.
What are the negative impacts of tourism in snowdonia ?
Increased house prices due to second home ownership, congestion due to increased visitors, diluted welsh speaking community, souvenir stores replace essential good stores in honeypot sites, disused slate quarries can be a visual scar to landscape, and footpath erosion, litter and car parking are a cost to the local area.
What is an AONB ?
Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty - part of the countryside designated for conservation due to its natural beauty.
How are landscapes managed in the Gower AONB ?
Designated footpaths minimise damage, information boards about area to increase awareness, clearly marked car parks, and strict control over planning and building.
How are footpaths maintained in Brecon Beacons National Park ?
Volunteer recruitment to repair them, footpaths replaced with hard wearing materials such as stone - and once installed surrounding vegetation restored.
What does fluvial mean ?
Referring to a river and its landforms.
What is bed load ?
The material carried by the river being bounced or rolled along its bed.
What determines the erosional processes that occur in a river ?
Number of factors including the velocity of the water and the rock and soil type of the river.
What different types of fluvial erosion are there ?
Abrasion - material carried by water hitting bed and banks, hydraulic action - compression of water and air into small gaps, solution - acidic water dissolving chalk and limestone, and attrition - stones colliding with each other.
How is material transported in a river ?
Solution - minerals dissolved in water (solute load), suspension - light material held up and carried (suspended load), saltation - small pebbles/stones bounced along bed, and traction - large boulders/rocks rolled along bed (bedload).
What causes material to be deposited ?
When there's less water flowing in river channel, on the inside of a meander - less water and moves slower here, and at the mouth of the river where water flows against the direction of the sea.
What is a gorge ?
A steep sided narrow valley formed by a retreating waterfall.
What is vertical erosion ?
Erosion of river channel causing deepening rather than widening.
What are interlocking spurs ?
Hard resistant rocks that a river cannot easily erode causing the river to go around them.
What is a plunge pool ?
A deepened part of the river bed at the base of a waterfall caused by the impact of the falling water.
How are waterfalls formed ?
Through glacial erosion, and differential erosion.
How are waterfalls formed through glacial erosion ?
Glacier carved steep valleys in ice age, once melted the water drains from the smaller valleys created and falls into the larger ones.
How are waterfalls formed through differential erosion ?
As the river bed crosses from hard to soft rock it's eroded at a faster rate creating a step, as the water 'falls' the rock underneath hard rock is eroded - causing an overhang to form and collapse, and causing the waterfall to retreat, and a plunge pool is created at the base of the waterfall.
What is a slip-off slope ?
A bank of gently sloping deposited material found on the inside bend of a meander.
Why are floodplains fertile ?
When the river floods the floodplain is covered with water and as it is shallower here material is deposited, such as silt, which makes the soil fertile.
Where in a rivers course are floodplains found ?
In the middle and lower courses of a river.
What are slope processes ?
Processes involved in moving material from the cliffs on to the beach.
What is freeze-thaw action ?
Breakdown of rocks due to water entering cracks and repeatedly freezing and thawing, widening the gaps.
What is carbonation ?
Where chemicals in rainwater such as carbonic acid react with chemicals in rocks such as limestone.
What three areas of weathering are there ?
Physical, biological and chemical.
What are physical forms of weathering ?
Freeze-thaw action and salt crystal growth.
What are biological forms of weathering ?
Growth of plant and burrowing animals.
How does salt crystal growth weather rocks ?
Of the seawater left on the rock the water evaporates leaving salt crystals which grow and exert a pressure on the rocks.
What processes erode cliffs ?
Hydraulic action, abrasion and solution.
What processes erode beach material ?
abrasion and attrition.
What is longshore drift ?
Process by which sediment is moved along the coastline, where backwash moves straight down the beach due to gravity and the swash moves up the beach at an angle equal to the wind, gradually moving sediment along.