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Label the following structures in the male reproductive system:


What are Sertoli cells?

Sertoli cells are the somatic cells of the testis that are essential for testis formation and spermatogenesis



Where are Sertoli cells found?

Found in the seminiferous tubule


What are Leydig cells and what do they do?

Leydig cells are interstitial cells of Leydig, are found adjacent to the seminiferous tubules in the testicle.

- Produce testosterone in the presence of LH


In three steps, explain what happens during testicular torsion

⇒ The spermatic cord twist upon itself

⇒ This occludes the blood supply (testicular artery)

⇒ Pressure builds up and necrosis of testis results 



Can testicles swap sides?

No, as a scrotal septum separates the two testicles


Describe the process in which the testes push through the abdominal wall

- The testes evaginate the abdominal wall as they are pulled through by the gubernaculum

- This forms the spermatic fascia (made of layers of abdominal muscle)


What are the three fascial layers in the spermatic cord?

- Internal fascia

- Cremasteric fascia

- External fascia


Identify the three arteries supplying the spermatic cord

- Testicular artery

- Artery to vas

- Cremasteric artery


Identify the three veins draining the spermatic cord

- Testicular vein

- Vein to vas

- Cremasteric vein


Identify the three nerves innervating the spermatic cord

- Ilioinguinal nerve 

- Nerve to cremaster (genital branch of genitofemoral nerve)

- Sympathetic


What happens during a vasectomy?

- Vas deferens are sectioned

- Sealed/tied to prevent sperm from entering into the urethra 

- Prevents fertilisation


What are the consequences to the sperm count after a vasectomy?

Sperm count reduces 


What are the consequences to the composition of the ejaculate after a vasectomy?

- No visible difference 

- Semen is made in accesory glands and sperm only composes 2-5%


Which nerve is responsible for the cremasteric reflex?

Muscular reflex of genitofemoral nerve in males


What does the prostate do?

- Maintains urinary continence (surrounds urethra)

- Creates an alkali secretion 

- Propels seminal fluid into urethra during ejaculation


Which zones in the prostate does cancer and BPH affect?

- Benign prostatic hyperplasia affects transitional zone

- Prostate cancers tend to be in peripheral zone 


What are the functions of the penis?

- Expulsion of urine via urethra

- Deposition of sperm in female genital tract 


Describe the processes that guide erection 

- Vasodilatation in penile arterioles, and compression of veins results in erection (parasympathetic)

- Erection is terminated by vasoconstriction (sympathetic)


Which nervous system orchestrates ejaculation?

Ejaculation is a complex process primarily orchestrated by the sympathetic system 


Which artery is the main blood supply to the penis?

Pudendal artery


On the following figure of the testis, identify:

- Pampiniform plexus of veins

- Testicular artery

- Vas deferens

- Epididymis 

- Seminiferous tubules 


Where is the origin of the testicular arteries?

Branch of abdominal aorta, inferior to renal arteries


Describe the venous drainage of the right and left testis

- Right testis: inferior vena cava

- Left testis: renal vein


Discriminate between the lymphatic drainage of the scrotum and that of the testis

- Scrotum – drains into inguinal lymph nodes

- Testes – drains into para-aortic lymph nodes


What is the cremasteric reflex?

- The cremasteric reflex can be stimulated by stroking the superior and medial part of the thigh 

- Produces immediate contraction of the cremaster muscle, elevating the testis to the side that has been stimulated 



From which layers of the anterior abdominal wall are the fascial coverings of the spermatic cord derived?

- External oblique muscle 

- Internal oblique muscle 

- Transversus abdominis muscle


On the diagram below, label:

- The vas deferens

- The spermatic cord 

- External spermatic fascia

- Cremaster muscle 

- Cremasteric fascia

- Internal spermatic fascia

- Tunica vaginalis


What are the contents of the spermatic cord?

- Nerve to cremaster (genital branch of genitofemoral nerve)

- Artery & vein to vas deferens

- Pampiniform plexus of testicular veins

- Sympathetic nerve

- Cremasteric artery and vein

- Ilioinguinal (on the outside, in superficial to external spermatic fascia)

- Tunica vaginalis

- Testicular artery & vein

- Lymph vessels 

- Vas deferens 


Mnemonic: Not All People Steal Cookies In The Teacher's Lovely Van


Which structures of the male reproductive system have smooth muscle that contract in peristaltic waves during emission?

- Seminal vesicles 

- Prostate 

- Vas deferens