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Flashcards in Clinical Conditions Deck (47)
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What is a hydrocoele?

Hydrocoele is a collection of serous fluid in the tunica vaginalis 


What is a Krukenberg tumour?

- A Krukenberg tumour is a metastatic gastrointestinal tumour within the ovaries

- It is often bilateral and usually from stomach 


What is a varicocoele?

Varicocoele is the gross dilation of veins draining the testes


What is Sheehan's syndrome?

Sheehan's syndrome is a state of postpartum hypopituitarism caused by ischaemic necrosis of the anterior pituitary gland due to blood loss and hypovolaemic shock during and after childbirth


Briefly, what is genital warts?

Genital warts is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the human papilloma virus


What is amenorhea?

Amenorrhea is the absence of menstruation


What is vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia?

Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia involves atypical squamous cells within the epidermis (no invasion)

- It is an in situ precursor of vulval squamous cell carcinoma 


What is Lymphogranuloma venereum?

LGV is a sexually transmitted infection caused by C. trachomatis serotypes L1-3 and presents with a rapidly healing papule then inguinal bubo


What is iron deficiency anaemia?

Iron deficiency anaemia is the reduction in the amount of healthy RBCs in blood due to a lack of iron


What is menopause?

Menopause is the permanent cessation of menstruation (12 consecutive months) with no associated physiological causes at the end of reproductive life due to loss of ovarian follicular activity


What is oligomenorrhea?

Oligomenorrhoea is infrequent menstruation >35 days i.e. 4-9x per year 


What is Donovanosis?

Donovanosis is a tropical sexually transmitted infection presenting as genital nodules which progress to ulcers, caused by Klebsiella granulomatis


Briefly, what is genital herpes?

Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted infection caused by Herpes simplex virus (1&2)


What is salpingitis?

Salpingitis is the inflammation and infection of the uterine tubes


What is bacterial vaginosis?

Bacterial vaginosis is a female genital tract infection which is not sexually transmitted

- It is the most common cause of abnormal discharge, odour and irritation in women of childbearing age


What is premenstrual dysphoric disorder?

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder is the severe end of the spectrum of PMS with extreme mood symptom


What is parametritis?

Parametritis is the inflammation of the uterine ligaments and parametrium (connective tissue adjacent to the uterus) 


What is pelvic inflammatory disease?

- Pelvic inflammatory disease is the infection of the female upper genital tract which ascends from the endocervix

- It presents with endometritis, salpingitis, parametritis, oophoritis, tubo-ovarian abscess and/or pelvic peritonitis 


What is menorrhagia?

Menorrhagia is a complaint of excessive menstrual blood loss over consecutive cycles or >80 mls per menstruation


Briefly, what is syphillus?

Syphillus is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the organism Treponema pallidum


What is vulvovaginal candidiasis?

Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a genital tract infection referring to vaginal and vulval symptoms caused by a yeast


What is secondary amenorrhoea?

Secondary amenorrhoea is the cessation of previously normal menstruation for >/= 6 months


What is a postpartum haemorrhage?

postpartum haemorrhage is the loss of more than 500 ml of blood in the first 24 hours following childbirth


What is a tubo-ovarian abscess? 

- A tubo-ovarian abscess is an encapsulated pocket of puss which forms due to infection of the fallopian tubes and ovaries

- It is a late complication of PID and can be life-threatening if the abscess ruptures and results in sepsis


What is pathological menopause?

Pathological menopause is the gradual/abrupt cessation of menstruation < 40 years occur idiopathically (5% of women)


What is Gestational diabetes?

Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar that develops during pregnancy due to insufficient insulin production for pregnancy demands 

- It commonly occurs in the second ½ of pregnancy and usually disappears after giving birth


What is primary infertility?

Primary infertility is when someone who has never conceived a child in the past has difficulty conceiving 


What is primary amenorrhoea?

Primary amenorrhoea is the failure to establish menstruation by 16 years 


What is endometritis?

Endometritis is the inflammation and infection of the endometrium lining of the uterus


What is pseudomyoxoma peritonei?

- Pseudomyxoma peritonei is a condition caused by cancer cells (mucinous adenocarcinoma) which produce extensive mucinous ascites due to epithelial implants on peritoneal surfaces

- There's frequent involvement of ovaries which can cause intestinal obstruction


What is premenstrual syndrome?

- PMS is a cyclical disorder, occurring in latter half of the menstrual cycle

- Symptoms could be physical or psychological and resolve with onset of menstruation


What is scabies?

Scabies is a skin condition caused by an infestation of the human itch mite called Sarcoptes scabiei


What is dysmenorrhea?

Dysmenorrhoea is pain during menses, associated with ovulatory cycles 


What is secondary dysmenorrhea?

Secondary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain due to endometriosis or obstructed menses 


What is pre-eclampsia?

Pre-eclampsia is a rapidly progessive disorder occuring only during pregnancy and the postpartum period characterized by hypertension and usually the proteinuria


What is a haematocoele?

Haematocoele is a collection of blood in the tunica vaginalis 


Briefly, what is chlamydia?

Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the organism Chlamydia trachomatis


What is Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia?

- CIN is a dysplasia of squamous cells within the cervical epithelium, induced by infection with high risk HPVs

- Three stages: CN I mostly regresses spontaneously, some progress to CN II (in situe carcinoma) and 10% may progresses to an invasive carcinoma (2-10 years)


What is subfertility?

Subfertility is the failure of conception in a couple having regular, unprotected coitus for one year 


What is chancroid?

Chancroid is a bacterial STD presenting as painful genital ulcers which are caused by infection with Haemophilus ducreyi


What is oophoritis? 

Oophoritis is the inflammation of the ovaries, often arising due to infection and often accompanied with salpingitis


What is pelvic peritonitis?

Pelvic peritonitis is the inflammation and infection of the peritoneum, which is the membrane that lines the abdomen in the pelvic area, often occurring as a complication of salpingitis


What is physiological menopause?

Physiologic menopause is the normal decline in ovarian function due to ageing (45 - 55), resulting in infrequent ovulation, decreased menstrual function and eventually cessation of menstruation


What are pubic lice?

Pubic lice are small parasites (crab louse - Phthirus pubis) affecting the genital area 


What is primary dysmenorrhea?

Primary dysmenorrhea is idiopathic menstrual pain due to the response of the uterus to local prostaglandins, hence painful contractions


What is dysfunctional uterine bleeding?

DUB is heavy and irregular menstrual bleeding that occurs secondary to anovulation


Briefly, what is gonorrhea?

Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the organism Neisseria gonorrhea