S6) Placental Function and Dysfunction Flashcards
In week 2 of embryological development, two distinct cellular layers emerge from the outer cell mass.
What happens to the inner cell mass during week 2 of embryological development?
Inner cell mass becomes the bilaminar disk:
When does implantation begin and end?
- Commencement: day 6
- Completion: day 9
What are the 2 cavities in the embryo?
- Amniotic cavity
- Yolk sac
What has happened by the end of week 2 of embryological development?
- The conceptus has implanted
- The embryo and its two cavities are suspended by the connecting stalk within a supporting sac called the chorionic cavity
What is the fate of the embryonic spaces after the end of week 2?
- Yolk sac disappears
- Amniotic sac enlarges
- Chorionic sac is occupied by the expanding amniotic sac
What does implantation achieve?
- Establishes the basic unit of exchange
- Anchors the placenta
- Establishes maternal blood flow within the placenta
Identify and describe the 3 forms of villi created by implantation
- Primary villi: early finger-like projections of trophoblast
- Secondary villi: invasion of mesenchyme into core
- Tertiary villi: invasion of mesenchyme core by fetal vessels
What is meant by the statement ‘implantation is interstitial’
Implantation is interstitial as the the uterine epithelium is breached and the conceptus implants within the stroma
Briefly, how does the placenta change as the foetus develops?
The placental membrane becomes progressively thinner as the needs of the foetus increase
What are chorionic villi?
- Chorionic villi are villi that sprout from the chorion to provide maximum contact area with maternal blood
- They contain foetal blood vessels
What is the placenta?
The placenta is an organ, specialised from the chorionic membrane, that connects the developing foetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange
Identify 2 things that can go wrong with implantation
- Implantation in the wrong place
- Incomplete invasion
Identify 2 clinical conditions which can result from incomplete invasion
- Placental insufficiency
Identify 2 clinical conditions which result from implantation at an inappropriate site
- Ectopic pregnancy
- Placentae praevia