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Flashcards in S8 Deck (27):
1

when to use compounding or addition in target return calculation

use additive by default, excluding situation s when:
- compounding is requested
- multi-period calculation is mentioned
- path dependency is mentioned

2

utility adjusted return calculation. Utility =

Expected return - 0.005*A*StandDev^2
A = investors risk aversion score (1-10)

3

roy safety first =

(R.expected - Rminacceptable) / StandDevPorffolio

4

assets need to be specified so that

- assets in the class should be both descriptively and statistically SIMILAR
- NOT highly CORRELATED (in order to provide diversification)
- individual assets to be included JUST in 1 class
- cover the MAJORITY of all possible investable assets
- contain sufficiently large % of liquid assets

5

sharpe of portfolio will increase if

Sharpe of proposed investment
= Sharpe of existing portfolio
X
correlation between proposed investment and portfolio returns

6

asset allocation approaches

MR. B.E.A.M
Mean Variance Optimisation MVO
Resampled efficient fronttier
Black Litterman
Monte Carlo simulation
Asset Liability Management
Experience based 60/40, 100 less age

7

mean variance optimization - advantages

- software available
- optimization programs used to generate the efficient frontier
- identifies pf with the highest expected return at each level of risk and associated asset allocation
- it is typically sign constraint to prevent negative weights
- cash equivalents are modeled as if risky asset class is included
- widely understood and accepted
- easily adopted to model risk as a downside risk or tracking error, return as excess return over some minimum threshold return, constrain the deviations of asset weights vs. some relevant benchmark, model the correlation to change over time and converge during periods of stress
- the modeling of the EF can be simplified with the use of corner portfolios

8

mean variance optimization - limitations

- number and nature of estimates required can be overwhelming
- expected returns are subject to estimation bias
- static one period approach
- can yield underdiversified pf unless constrained
- output can be very sensitive to the inputs, so the result is unstable

9

resampled efficient frontier - advantages

- EF is more stable than traditional MV
- small changes in inputs produce only minor changes in SAA (strategic asset allocation)
- portfolios tend to be better diversified than traditional MVO
- commercially available software

10

resampled efficienc frontier - limitations

- no theoretical basis for the approach
- inputs often based on historical data

11

Black Litterman - advantages

- theoretically justified way to address the sensitivity of inputs problem and incorporate manager views
- typically generated more stable asset asslocation and better diversification
- can be constrained or unconstrained, though constrained is the more useful and rigurous approach
- BL (constrained) quantifies and begins with market consensus expected returns and allows the manager to systematically diverge from this starting point
- commercially available software

12

Black Litterman - liimitations

often the inputs are based on historical data

complicated

13

monte carlo simulation - advantages

- statistical analysis tool to further analyze the asset allocation output of the other approahces
- models path dependency issues
- generates statistical probabilities of meeting or not meeting return objectives
- can also model liabilities and surplus
- used to complement the other approaches
- commercially available software

14

monte carlo simulation - limitations

- can be complex to implement
- can generate false confidence. output is only as accurate as the inputs

15

asset liability management - strengths

- considers the allocation of the assets with the respect to liabilities
- can generate a surplus frontier that shows the combinations of risk and return
- otherwise similar to MVO
- commercially available software

16

asset liability management - limitations

same as MVO

- number and nature of estimates required can be overwhelming
- expected returns are subject to estimation bias
- static one period approach
- can yield underdiversified pf unless constrained
- output can be very sensitive to the inputs, so the result is unstable

17

experience based - strengths

- incorporated decades of asset allocation experience
- easy to understand and consistent with the more complex approaches
- inexpensive to implement
- useful on the exam

18

experience based - limitations

allocation rules may be too simple for some investors

experience based rules can be contradictory in some applied settings

19

sharpe function of market risk premium =

sharpe = MRP/stand dev

20

capital allocation line, definition

capital allocation line is the straight line drawn from the risk free rate to the tangency portfolio on the efficient frontier ...

... WHERE the tangency portfolio is the corner portfolio with the HIGHEST sharpe ratio

21

primary goals of security portfolio of the banks

provide liquidity

manage the credit risk

manager the duration (gap management)

generate income

22

tactical asset allocation

short term deviations from strategical asset allocation in attempt to capitalize on capital market mispricing

23

strategic asset allocation combines

capital market expectations and the investors risk/return/contraints

24

% of return explained by tactic asset allocation

0-10% according to different studies

25

utility adjusted return. MUST REMEMBER

0.005 USED when using 20 for 20%
0.5 USED when using 0.20 for 20%

26

if individual's planned expenses are after tax, you must

convert then into BEFORE tax by division to (1-tax rate)

add inflation rate to pretax return NOT to after tax return

27

Black Litterman model

1. Equilibrium assumption that the asset allocation should be proportional to the market values of the available assets.
2. Modifies that to take into account the 'views' of the investor in question to arrive at a bespoke asset allocation.