Sac 1 - How Does He Brain Function? Flashcards Preview

Psychology > Sac 1 - How Does He Brain Function? > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sac 1 - How Does He Brain Function? Deck (41)
Loading flashcards...
1

Name 7 steps of the scientific method

1: identify the area of research and form a research aim.
2: collect info
3: research question, formate hypothesis
4: design a research method
5: collect and analyse data
6: draw conclusion - accept/reject hypothesis
7: report findings
8: test conclusion

2

What is IV (independent variable)

Example 1:
Sleep deprivation causes stress.
IV: sleep deprivation

Example 2:
Practising goal-kicking improves accuracy.
IV: practising goal kicking or not

3

What is the DV (dependent variable)

Example 1:
Sleep deprivation causes stress.
DV: number of stress levels

Example 2:
Practising goal-kicking improves accuracy.
DV: number of accuracy levels

4

Hypothesis

A prediction of the outcome of research, stated in terms of the influence of the changes in the value of independent variable on the value of dependent variable

5

Motor neurons

Communicate messages from the CNS to the particular muscles that an organism intends to move at any particular moment.

6

Sensory neurons

Able to convey sensations such as touching dogs fur - detected by sensory receptors on the skin of our hand - to the brain.

7

Peripheral nervous system

Has 2 functions, which go off the sensory and motor neurons. The PNS has 2 subdivisions; the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.

8

Central nervous system

Based off the brain and spinal cord, forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain.

9

Neuron

Neurons receive, process and then transmit information to each other. They are usually comprised of 3 sections, dendrites, the soma and the axon.

10

Dendrites

Dendrites receive information from other neurons or sensory receptors via the synapse and deliver this to the cell body or soma.

11

Soma

Controls the metabolism and maintenance of the cell.

12

Axon

Part of a neuron where the electrical nerve-impulse is transmitted

13

Glial cells

Not a part of the neuron although still very important. Four functions are:
1- to surround neurons and hold hem in place
2- to supply nourishment and oxygen to neurons.
3- to remove dead neurons
4-to insulate one neuron from the other and increase the speed of transmission of never impulse. To do this, glial cells produce myelin.

14

Myelin

Fatty substance that insulates the axon from surrounding fluid from other neurons. Only axon is covered.

15

Terminal buttons

Small knobs at the end of an axon that release a chemical called neurotransmitters. The terminal buttons form the presynaptic neuron of the synapse.

16

Neural pathways

Allow one part of the nervous system communicate with the other.

17

Synapse

Junction between 2 neurons. The presynaptic neuron releases molecules of neurotransmitters, which then fit into receptor sites on the postsynaptic neuron. the charge builds up until a signal is sent down the post synaptic axon.

18

Reflex actions

Involuntary actions that do not involve the brain when reacting to a stimulus.

19

Hindbrain

Squishy bit,
Brain stem: regulates reflex survival responses.

Pons: controls movement, breathing, sleeping, dreams and waking.

Cerebellum: perception and cognition, balance and fine muscle control.

Medulla: heartbeat, breathing and other vital bodily functions.

20

Midbrain

Little middle piece.

Reticular formation: control of arousal, sleep and wake cycle

21

Forebrain

Top part, upper level structures
The cerebrum: covered by thin layer, cerebral cortex. Divide left and right hemispheres.

The hypothalamus: control of sleep, regulation of body temp, expression of emotions, feeding, fighting, fleeing & fornication.

The thalamus: process sensory info except nose. Regulates overall activity in cortex.

22

Limbic system

Hippocampus: long term memory and spatial orientation.

Amygdala: aggression fear and emotional memory

23

Contralateral organisation

Hemispheres controlling each other

24

Cerebral cortex

Role is receiving info from the environment, controlling responses and process higher order thinking

25

Primary visual cortex

In the occipital lobe receives info from the eyes

26

Primary auditory cortex

In the temporal Lobe receives info from the ears

27

Primary somatosensory cortex

In the parietal lobe receives info from the sensory receptors on the skin

28

Primary motor cortex

In frontal lobe, NO SENSORY CORTEX, controls our movements

29

Hemispheric specialisation

Where one side of the hemisphere works mostly without the other. For example, language in mainly responsible by the left hemisphere. Although neither of them work in compete isolation.

30

Plasticity

Necessary for learning to take place, occurs at the synaptic connections of the brain. Ability for he brains synapses to be modified.