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Flashcards in SAC 2 Deck (25):

person perception

the process of forming impressions about others, we do this by piecing bits of information we have gathered about that person so that we might get an idea of their characteristics


define attributions

they are inferences we make about the causes of events the behaviour of other, or our own behaviour, there are internal(dispositional) and external( situational) attributions(movie scenario)


example of attributions

Julia invites Kim and Liz to the movies. Liz arrives 30 minutes late. Kim thinks there must've been a lot of traffic and parking was hard. Julia knows her friend is always late and thinks her friend is unorganised.


example of stereotypes

gender, ethnicity, race, disability, age, social class, sexuality, occupation etc


implicit attitudes

are involuntary, uncontrollable and sometimes unconscious. It is possible for individuals to be unaware that they hold a certain attitude until their actions reveal it.


example of implicit attitudes

moths are harmless (attitude)
screams at seeing a moth (action)


explicit attitudes

are where people openly state their attitude and behave in a way that reflects this attitude.


example of explicit attitudes

exercise is good for my health (attitude)
goes to the gym daily (action)



is an unfavourable or negative attitude towards a group of people based on insufficient or incorrect information about the group whom it is directed , it is a form of antisocial behaviour (is an identifiable group, not an individual from the group) A & C components



is the action that expresses the attitude of prejudice and its often the individual who is the victim.


example of prejudice

sexism, racism, ageism, homophobia, disability


examples of discrimination

reluctance to help, tokenism, reverse discrimination


effects of prejudice and discriminaton

low self esteem, disadvantage/failure, self fulfilling prophecies, violence and genocide


how is prejudice prevented and reduced

education, inter-group contact, cognitive intervention, super-ordinate goals, direct experience


LaPiere study

study in 1934, la piere visited 184 restaurants with 2 Chinese men and dined at all of them then later sent a survey asking whether they'd serve chinese men, 50% returned the survey and of that 90% said no. this shows that people who expressed prejudice had not actually acted in a prejudicial way.


situational attributions

environmental setting, situation, luck, the actions of another person


dispositional attributions

traits, ability, motivation, attitude, mood, effort


define attitude

a positive or negative evaluation of an attitude object(a person, object, event or idea) it is a learned, stable and relatively enduring evaluation and can affect an individuals behaviour


difference in attitude and then behaviour

can occur because of attitude salience, attitude specificity, information about the attitude, the situation and how the attitude is measured


what is the tri-component modal

is a model to describe the structure of an attitude according to it an attitude is made up of a cluster of beliefs(thoughts&ideas), feelings(likes&dislikes) and behaviours(actions&intentions). some attitudes do not have all 3 components, some components can also be more dominant than others.


A- affective component

the feelings and emotional response to an attitude object. this component is mostly learned during the course of our daily lives. it is the emotional reaction we have or the way we feel about an attitude. this involves a physiological response to an attitude object. eg- you may love dogs


B- behavioural component

this is a persons behaviour towards an attitude object. this is what we say and how we act towards the object. eg- you might get a pet dog and pend time with it


C- cognitive component

a persons thoughts, ideas and understanding of an attitude object. it is what we know or think we know about an attitude object. eg- dogs can be good guard dogs and good companions.


what are the functions of stereotypes

they help us organise our knowledge of people quickly, especially when we meet new people, unfortunate they tend to be incorrect and any individual will not posses all the characteristics we assumed and therefore individual traits may be overlooked.


function of attitudes (P.I.E)

PREDISPOSING- guiding us to behave a certain way , helping us get what we want and avoid what we don't want, saving us energy so we dont have to work out our reactions to an attitude object everytime we encounter it
INTERPRETING- guiding the interpretation and summary of attitude objects, helping us avoid worry and confusion when faced with a new one. helping us to understand and process information.
EVALUATING- helping us stand up for our beliefs and values, help us reflect on our values, protect our self-esteem when we feel threatened or uncomfortable.