Flashcards in SAC 2 Deck (25):
the process of forming impressions about others, we do this by piecing bits of information we have gathered about that person so that we might get an idea of their characteristics
they are inferences we make about the causes of events the behaviour of other, or our own behaviour, there are internal(dispositional) and external( situational) attributions(movie scenario)
example of attributions
Julia invites Kim and Liz to the movies. Liz arrives 30 minutes late. Kim thinks there must've been a lot of traffic and parking was hard. Julia knows her friend is always late and thinks her friend is unorganised.
example of stereotypes
gender, ethnicity, race, disability, age, social class, sexuality, occupation etc
are involuntary, uncontrollable and sometimes unconscious. It is possible for individuals to be unaware that they hold a certain attitude until their actions reveal it.
example of implicit attitudes
moths are harmless (attitude)
screams at seeing a moth (action)
are where people openly state their attitude and behave in a way that reflects this attitude.
example of explicit attitudes
exercise is good for my health (attitude)
goes to the gym daily (action)
is an unfavourable or negative attitude towards a group of people based on insufficient or incorrect information about the group whom it is directed , it is a form of antisocial behaviour (is an identifiable group, not an individual from the group) A & C components
is the action that expresses the attitude of prejudice and its often the individual who is the victim.
example of prejudice
sexism, racism, ageism, homophobia, disability
examples of discrimination
reluctance to help, tokenism, reverse discrimination
effects of prejudice and discriminaton
low self esteem, disadvantage/failure, self fulfilling prophecies, violence and genocide
how is prejudice prevented and reduced
education, inter-group contact, cognitive intervention, super-ordinate goals, direct experience
study in 1934, la piere visited 184 restaurants with 2 Chinese men and dined at all of them then later sent a survey asking whether they'd serve chinese men, 50% returned the survey and of that 90% said no. this shows that people who expressed prejudice had not actually acted in a prejudicial way.
environmental setting, situation, luck, the actions of another person
traits, ability, motivation, attitude, mood, effort
a positive or negative evaluation of an attitude object(a person, object, event or idea) it is a learned, stable and relatively enduring evaluation and can affect an individuals behaviour
difference in attitude and then behaviour
can occur because of attitude salience, attitude specificity, information about the attitude, the situation and how the attitude is measured
what is the tri-component modal
is a model to describe the structure of an attitude according to it an attitude is made up of a cluster of beliefs(thoughts&ideas), feelings(likes&dislikes) and behaviours(actions&intentions). some attitudes do not have all 3 components, some components can also be more dominant than others.
A- affective component
the feelings and emotional response to an attitude object. this component is mostly learned during the course of our daily lives. it is the emotional reaction we have or the way we feel about an attitude. this involves a physiological response to an attitude object. eg- you may love dogs
B- behavioural component
this is a persons behaviour towards an attitude object. this is what we say and how we act towards the object. eg- you might get a pet dog and pend time with it
C- cognitive component
a persons thoughts, ideas and understanding of an attitude object. it is what we know or think we know about an attitude object. eg- dogs can be good guard dogs and good companions.
what are the functions of stereotypes
they help us organise our knowledge of people quickly, especially when we meet new people, unfortunate they tend to be incorrect and any individual will not posses all the characteristics we assumed and therefore individual traits may be overlooked.