Flashcards in Sacraments in General Deck (10)
What is sacramentality?
All of reality, regardless of place, historical period, religion, culture, etc., can be called sacramental (mediation) • i.e. Language, gestures, signs, symbols, rituals are all part of what it means to be human. To be human is to engage in and form relationship & to form societies
What are sacraments?
They are believed to be bearers of the Divine • They communicate & bear supernatural & divine realities
What does the OT say about sacraments?
a. Revelation itself is SACRAMENTAL. Mediation & Communication of God’s very presence to us.
i. Circumcision as a mark of the Covenant
ii. Ratification of Covenant at Mt. Sinai (Ex. 24) --> Sprinkling of Blood
iii. Passover (permeated with symbolic meaning) --> Ritual dialogue is a RE-PRESENTATION
What does the NT say about sacraments?
a. Many symbolic actions & rituals which come to be known as Sacraments of the Church.
i. The word we use is derived from the NT (esp. Paul) => MYSTERION (“Mystery”) • MYSTERION => MYSTERY.
ii. Christ (c.f., Romans 16:25ff, 2 Corinthians 2:7, Ephesians 1:9 & 3:9, Colossians 1:26) “Mysteries” are the ways we encounter the ONE MYSTERY.
iii. FROM THE BEGINNING the followers of Jesus participate in the Redemption (Mystery) of Christ by: 1) Baptism 2) Eucharist --> These were the Mysterion (pl.) • Translation of Mysterion into Latin => Sacramentum
How does Augustine develop sacraments?
a. INDELIBLE MARK, SIGNUM vs. RES
i. Donatists => Sacraments celebrated by heretics are invalid (i.e., Heretical ordained minister invalidates sacrament)
ii. Augustine: Certain sacraments leave an indelible mark/ontological change (seal/character) on the soul
Three Aspects Of Sacrament (and how they “work”)
i. Sacramentum Tantum - The Pure Sign (e.g. Bread and Wine, Font of Water) •
ii. Res et Sacramentum - Reality and Sign (e.g. The real presence)
iii. Res Tantum - The Pure Reality (i.e., GRACE)
Hugh of St. Victor (+1141) and the sacraments
EFFICACY (Doctrine of Sacramental Efficaciousness)
Peter Lombard and the sacraments (+1160)
7 sacraments, causality
How does Aquinas (+1274), Florence, and Trent develop the understanding of the sacraments?
a. INSTRUMENTAL CAUSALITY, EX OPERE OPERATO, MATTER and FORM
i. Instrumental Causality
ii. The sacraments are instruments in the hands of God (not our hands)
iii. Sacraments are instrumentally instituted by God, he is the first cause - God is the true and proper subject
iv. Ex Opere Operato: Efficacy of the Sacraments does not depend on Minister or Subject
++ 3 elements required for a sacrament: matter, form, and minister with intention.
v. Council of Florence (1439) embraces these three requirements
vi. Council of Trent (1547) reaffirms Council of Florence in response to the Reformation