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What are sacraments of vocation?

Sacraments at the service of communion.
• When speaking of Holy Orders and Marriage we are talking about vocations not ordered primarily for our own salvation/sanctification, but for the sanctification/salvations of the whole Church


OT and Holy Orders

Biblical Evidence abounds for the three offices of:
• 1) Priest (sanctify) —> Offer sacrifice, etc.
• 2) Prophet (teach) —> Proclaim God’s message to his people
• 3) King (govern/shepherd) —> The one governing God’s people
• Bear in Mind: Even in the OT, the idea is that the entirety of the people have been set apart/elected/called to be a nation of priests —> Specific calls flow from this call of the entire people.
• One Tribe (Levi) is set apart for the practice of worship:
• Aaron (and son) are set apart by Moses
• 70 elders are also set apart by Moses


NT and Holy Orders

Each of these three roles is definitively fulfilled by Jesus Christ —> Jesus Christ is the definitive:
• 1) Priest —> Offers not something/someone, but himself: Offerer and Offering
• 2) Prophet —> Definitive teacher/proclaimer of the Word, for he is the Word; the Word incarnate
• 3) King —> Manifested by his total gift of self on the cross
-Christ gathers men and women to himself and gathers them into his body
• Church => The Twelve
• 12 are called to build-up the body, called from among the disciples of Jesus
• e.g., “Bind and Loose” is granted to the entire Church but exercised in a special way by the 12
• e.g., “Whose sins you forgive…”: the Apostles are given, in a special way, the ability to carry on Jesus’ ministry


Ignatius of Antioch (c.107) and Holy Orders

Expounds on the theology of Holy Orders:
1. Bishop = Visible source of unity; head of the Church
• “The only proper Eucharist is celebrated by the bishop or his representatives. Where the bishop celebrates, all should gather.”
• “Do nothing apart from the Bishop.”
2. Priests = Representatives of the bishop
3. Deacons = Servants
• “The deacons should please all in every way they can. For they are not merely ministers of food and drink, but the servants of God.” – “…priests and deacons who are my fellow workers.”


Hyppolytus on Holy Orders in Apostolic Tradition (c.215)

Liturgies of Ordination for bishop, priest, deacon:
• ** Laying on of Hands + Prayer of Ordination**
1. Bishops
• Bishops (3) will lay hands on the one to be ordained (other priests do nothing)
• One bishop will lay hands and pray the prayer of ordination
2. Priests
• Bishop lays hands on the one to be ordained, and the priests do as well (being ordained into the presbyterate includes the laying on of hands by the other members of the presbyterate)
• Bishop prays a similar prayer of ordination (i.e., similar to prayer for the bishop)
3. Deacons
• Bishop alone is to lay hands, for the deacon is ordained for service of the bishop (i.e., does not receive the common Spirit of the priesthood, but the Spirit so that he may work under the order of the Bishop)
• Prayer of ordination


Council of Florence (1439) on Holy Orders

The sixth sacrament is that of Orders
• Matter = Traditio Instrumentorum —> Handing over the Instruments
• Deacon = Handing over the book of the Gospel
• Priest = Chalice with wine & Patten with bread
• Bishop = All the above + Ring, Miter, Crosier
• Form = The words associated with the handing over of the Traditio
• Minister = Bishop


Trent on Holy Order in his Decree on the Sacrament of Orders (1563)

Reformers deny the sacramental nature of Orders (i.e., laying on of hands confers no grace or sacramental power).
• Trent vigorously affirms the sacramental nature of Orders.
• Highest Order Spoken of by Trent = Priest.
• A bishop possesses the fullness of his power when ordained a priest.
• Difference between bishop and priest = Bishop is one who is set apart in jurisdiction (i.e., juridical power)
• i.e., No sacramental distinction - Bishop is “consecrated” not “ordained” a bishop


What does Pius XII change on Holy Orders?

The “Handing Over of the Instruments” (i.e., Traditio Instrumentorum) is not necessary for validity of Orders


Vatican II (Lumen Gentium) on Holy Orders

#10: Common Priesthood & Ministerial Priesthood
+ Differ in essence and degree
• All priesthood is a participation in the priesthood of Jesus.
• BUT there is not only a degree of difference, but an essential difference between common and ministerial.
• A sacramental character
+ Ministerial priests:
• Possess sacred power and responsibility: teach, govern, sanctify (instruct and rule)
• Offer sacrifice of the Eucharist on behalf of the entire priesthood
• #21: Episcopate is the “Fullness of the sacrament of orders”
• Through episcopal ordination, the fullness is conferred: the high priesthood and apex of the priesthood.
• #28: Priests “preach the Gospel, shepherd the faithful, and celebrate divine worship.”
• cf. Christ is priest, prophet, and king —> sanctify, teach, govern
• #29: Diaconate “ministry of service”
• Sacramental Character = In persona christi servii
• This too is an indelible mark
• “The diaconate may be restored as a proper and permanent rank” in holy orders
• N.b., Three distinct character are associated with each degree of orders


What are the six points that Inter Insigniores (1976) presents on the ordination of women?

1) It is the constant tradition of the Church (East and West) that women are not ordained as priests
2) Jesus did not call women to be among the twelve
3) The Apostles, subsequently, did not include women among the group
4) The practice of Christ and the Apostles must be considered permanently normative in the Church
5) The priest must have a natural resemblance to Christ (i.e., maleness is not accidental to Jesus)
6) This issue (i.e., women priests) does not concern the issue of the woman’s fundamental equality and dignity


OT and marriage

Genesis 1:27-28 & Genesis 2:18-24 (n.b., Jesus and Paul both reference these texts)
• Key Points:
• 1) Male/Female is the image of God (human person, both M/F, are created in the image of God)
• 2) Fundamental equality/dignity is shared by M&F
• 3) Woman is a “suitable partner” for the man
• 4) Partners in: “be fruitful and multiple” and “exercise dominion” —> Collaborators in this vocation
• 5) Complementarity between M&F
• 6) Man and wife come together and become “One Flesh” —> UNITY (one body, symbolized by conjugal love)
• —> Jesus and Paul both point to this as the grounds for the indissolubility of the bond
• Marriage is derived from creation itself —> It is of God’s institution (it is not man made, nor determined by man)


NT and Marriage

1) John 2 - Wedding at Cana
2) Mark 10:2-13 (Indissolubility)
• “From the beginning, God made them male and female.…What God has joined together, no man must separate.”
3) Matthew 5:31-32 (Indissolubility)
• “Whoever divorces his wife, except in the case of porneia…”
• Porneia (Gk.) = Unchastity, unlawful sexual conduct – Zenut (Hb.) = Prostitution or Incestuous Relationship
• NOT if one of the parties violates the marriage bond
• BUT an unlawful marriage (i.e., incestuous)
4) Ephesians 5:21-32 (Mysterion)
• v. 31 —> Paul quotes Genesis “and the two shall become one flesh”
• v. 32 —> “This is a great mystery (Mysterion Gk.)”


Ignatius of Antioch (+107) and Marriage

• Christians should only marry with the consent of the bishop
• Not necessarily that the bishop is the minister (etc.), but that his approval must be sought


Augustine (+430) and Marriage

• Articulates that marriage is a sacrament (sacramentum)
• Represents both a legal bond & a sign/symbol of the union of Christ and the Church
• Articulates the three goods of marriage (Hierarchical goods, i.e., #1 is the most important):
• 1) Bonum Prolis (Procreation of Children)
• 2) Bonum Fidei (Exclusive Fidelity)
• 3) Bonum Sacramenti (Indissoluble Bond)


Pope Alexander III (+1181) - Letter to Archbishop of Salerno

• Makes a statement: It is the consent of the partners that makes a true and valid marriage; however it is consummation of the marriage that makes it absolutely indissoluble.
• Emphasis on consent making the marriage: Alexander III is responding to Germanic tradition where there is an emphasis that marriage does not take place until consummation


Council of Florence (1439) and Marriage

• The seventh sacrament is Matrimony (the sacrament of union of Christ and the Church, Eph 5).
+ Elements:
• Efficient Cause = Mutual consent, duly expressed in words.
• Triple Good:
• 1) Begetting of Children and their education to the worship of God
• 2) Faithfulness which each spouse owes to the other
• 3) Indissolubility of the marriage, inasmuch as it represents the indissolubility of the union of Christ and the Church.
+ Implicit:
• One Man & One Woman
• Two Baptized persons
• The priest marries the couple - blesses the consent
• The couple makes the consent, which is then crowned with the priestly/episcopal blessing
• Deacons cannot officiate at weddings


Trent and Marriage

• Responds to the Reformers who, though acknowledging its goodness, denied its sacramental nature of matrimony.
• Trent: Christian marriage is truly and properly a sacrament.
• Explicitly rejects bigomy and polygamy
• Church does have the authority to regulate marriage & establish impediments to marriage
• Impediments = Any factor which would make one ineligible to marry
• Divine Institution = Not Dispensible (e.g., vowed celibate)
• Ecclesiastical Laws = Dispensible (e.g., age)
• Natural Laws = Sometimes Dispensible (e.g., consanguinity, doubtful impotence)
• For validity (and at Trent articulated for the first time), the consent must be exchanged in Canonical Form.
• Canonical Form = Minister + 2 Witnesses
• Canonical form required for VALIDITY (when at least one party is a baptized Catholic).
• Consent reflects an act of the will about the three goods


Vatican II and Marriage

+• Lumen Gentium (1964)
• #11: Marriage is symbol of the relationship of Christ and his Church • Thus, Marriage, as a sacrament of this relationship, is indissoluble
• Couples help one another to attain holiness
• Marriage is rooted in the baptismal call: the couple helps one another to fulfill/live out this call
• #11 cont: From marriage comes the family and (when baptized) a growth in the family of God.
• Family = The domestic Church, the Church in miniature.
• Parents, by word and example, are the first heralds of the faith.
+• Gaudium et Spes (1965)
• #48: Goes on to reaffirm the three goods of marriage.
• Constantly Emphasizes: Partnership and Communion of Life and Love, Mutual Giving of Two Persons.


Five elements in the Sacrament of Marriage

• 1) One Man and One Women
• 2) BOTH of whom have been BAPTIZED (i.e., if one is not baptized, no sacrament)
• 3) Both of whom are FREE (or eligible) to marry (i.e., meet requirements of divine law and ecclesiastical law)
• 4) CONSENT makes the marriage.
• 5) Consent must be exchanged according to CANONICAL FORM for validity, not just liceity (i.e., minister and two witnesses, but can be dispensed from)