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Flashcards in Sacraments of Initiation Deck (34)
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What was the common understanding of baptism?

a. Water cleanses
b. rites that involve cleansing and purification (cultic impediments)


OT and baptism (7 ideas)

The rite of initiation was circumcision (there are some text that pre-figure baptism)
a. Gen. Creation: Spirit over the water
b. Gen 7. Noah: purification
c. Exo. Pass the red sea
d. Num. Moses stroke the rock
e. Judges/Kings: Kings bathes and is cleansed
f. Ez. 36, 25: I’ll sprinkle clean water upon you and give you new hearts
g. Zec. 13: On that day, there will be a fountain to purify you from sin


NT and baptism (7 ideas)

a. Synoptics: Baptism of Jesus: Revealed his identity, did it as a symbol
b. Mat 28,20: Baptize and teach…
c. Acts 2,37: Repent and be baptized
d. Acts 16: baptsm of Lydia and her house
e. Acts 18: Crispus and his household
f. Rom 6: Share in the death of Christ, to share in his resurecction
g. 1 Peter 3, 18: Not to cleanse the body but the conscience


Fathers of the Church and baptism

a. Justin Martyr: 1 apology. renewed by Christ, consecrated, go to the waters of rebirth
i. The Trinitarian formula is used
ii. Then they participate in the eucharist (baptism is the beginning)
b. Hipolitus: Apostolic Tradition. Rubrics for baptism
c. Commonalities: Effects: forgiveness, adoption, union with Christ/Church, mark


Baptism according to Augustine

leave a seal (Donatists), forgives personal and original sin (Pelagius)


Baptism according to Aquinas

gives us necessary for salvation, are instruments of grade, matter/form


Baptism according to the Council of Florence (6 ideas)

i. gateway to spiritual life
ii. member of the body of Christ
iii. it is necessary
iv. there only one formula (trinitaria)
v. Minister is the priest (others can baptize)
vi. for remission of sin (personal/original) without penance


Baptism according to Luther

Sign of grace but not effective until confirmed by faith


Baptism according to Calvin

Sign that you belong to the predestined


Trent and baptism (6 ideas)

a. JBap. had a different baptism
b. true and natural water is needed
c. the Catholic church holds true doctrine on baptism
d. Not optional but necessary for salvation (ordinarily)
e. Apostates are not re-baptized
f. children’s baptism is reaffirmed


Vatican II and baptism (3 docs.)

1. Sac. Concilium: Renewal reform of ritual
i. Catechumenate restored
ii. revision of ritual for children and adults
iii. baptism of infants should be addressed to the child
iv. express clearly the rights of Parents/God parents
2. Lumen Gent.
i. Baptism incorporates and gives grace
ii. people are reborn as children of God
3. Unitatis Redintegratio:
i. it is a sacrament of unity, but is the beginning/incorporation in the salvation plan


Contemporary understanding of baptism

a. It is the basis of Christian life
b. prefigured by events in the OT
c. baptism if Christ is a manifestation of his identity and kenosis
d. at baptism we receive our identity (purify, justify, sanctify)
e. Triple immersion/pouring and Trinitarian formula
f. baptism of infants is ancient
g. in the Latin church the ordinary minister is an ordained cleric (but in emergency any other)
h. Necessary for the salvation of those to whom the Gospel has been preached, and can ask for it
i. There is baptism of blood/desire
j. children who die without baptism are entrusted to the mercy of God (no limbo)
k. all sins are forgiven (personal, original)
l. it consecrates us for worship
m. the baptized is:
i. configured to Christ
ii. sharer of the common priesthood
iii. a new creation
iv. adopted by God
v. member of the Body of Christ
vi. Co-heir of the kingdom
vii. Partaker of the divine nature
viii. Temple of the Holy Spirit (live in faith, hope and Charity)


OT and Eucharist (sacrifice and meal)

a. Meal/sacrifice began as agricultural practice but became sign of election
b. Gen 22: Abraham/Isaac: willingness to sacrifice son becomes template
i. God will provide
ii. Model of trust
iii. Personal surrender to God
c. Ex. 24: Bull- Moses: Covenant making, sign of communion of man and God
d. Ex.12: Passover, Christ’s words and actions relate to the Passover but goes beyond
i. It was an anamnesis of the history of salvation
ii. recounted through Q/A why that night was different
iii. Consisted of symbolic food
iv. it was a thanksgiving (Berikat)
e. Gen 14: Melkizedek gives thanks with bread and wine
f. Deut. 8: Mana from heaven
g. Psalm 8: bread that strengthens and wine that gladdens.
h. Prov: Wisdom prepares a banquet


NT and Eucharist (Last Supper)

a. Four accounts (3 synoptics + 1 Corinthians)
b. Palestinian Tradition (no mention of new, just covenant)
i. Matthew 26, 26-29 and Mk 14, 22-25
c. Antiocene Tradition (New Covenant after Jeremiah 31, and blood given after supper)
i. Luke 22, 15-20 and 1Corinthians 11, 23-26
d. Passed down as the words of Christ
e. Jesus acts as the head of the house in Jewish custom, and gives a new meaning.
f. Last supper inaugurates the eschaton
g. It is not a reenactment but a participation in that same supper and the plan of salvation
h. Common to all accounts:
i. took=offertory
ii. blessed/gave thanks=Euch. prayer
iii. broke= fraction
iv. gave=communion


Patristic understanding of the Eucharist (Ignatius of Antioch, Dicdache, Justn Martyr, Ireneaus, Hypolitus, Augustine)

a. we receive the flesh and blood of Christ
b. the unity of the church comes from the Eucharist
c. Christ causes the change of substance
d. it is Christ sacrifice
e. it forgives sins
f. it changes us
g. it’s a thanksgiving for all creation
i. Justin Martyr: It is thanksgiving, only eaten by the faithful, it is what Christ taught us
ii. Augustine: It is (res, signum), Same priest is victim whose sacrifice is perfect


What was the error of Paschaisus Radbertus (865) on the Eucharist?

extreme realism (Christ’s actual body is broken, eaten, stored)


What was the error of Berengar of Tour (1088) on the Eucharist?

Extreme symbolism (It is just a sign)- Corrected by council of Rome


How did Aquinas develop the Eucharist?

Not the one who use transubstantiation for the first time (P. Inocent III, Lateram and Lyon)
a. Elaborates on Transubstantiation (accidents remain, substance is changed)
b. immediate effect: res sacramentum (presence of Christ)
c. Ultimate effect: res sacramenti (unity of the mystical body)


How did the Council of Constance (1415) ruled against Hus (nationlist) and Calixtines (give chalice to all)?

Decree on communion by bread alone (it has all the body/blood)


What did Luther say about the Eucharist?

No chalice for lay, transubstantiation instead of consubstantiation, Mass as sacrifice


What was the problem of Zwingli related to the Eucharist?

extreme symbolism


What did Calvin say about the Eucharist?

The change is not on the bread and wine but on us (Spiritualism)


What is the doctrine of Trent on the Eucharist?

a. decree on the Eucharist (1551)
i. Real presence
ii. effects: remembrance of Christ, forgiveness of sins, symbol of unity of the church
iii. the greatest sacrament (high point of sacramental life)
iv. concomitance (all Christ is present in both species, one or a particle)
v. worship of the sacrament is appropriate
b. Doctrine on Mass as Sacrifice (1562)
i. Mass is a re-presentation of the sacrifice of Christ
ii. sacrifice is efficacious for the living and the dead
iii. It celebrates and commemorates saints but it’s offered to God.


What did Vatican II say about the Eucharist?

a. Rearticulating of previous councils (Source and summit of Christian life).
b. Presbyterorum Ordinis #5: All sacraments, prayer and works are bound to the Eucharist


OT prefigurations of Confirmation

1) Laying on of Hands
• Deut. 34:9 - Moses laying hands on Joshua
• Num. 8:10 - Laying hands on the Levites
2) Anointing with Oil is prevalent throughout the ancient near east
• Therapeutic, healing, calming, etc. even outside Judaism
• Ex. 29:7 - Anointing Aaron
• Lev. 4 - Anointing of Levitical priests
• 1 Sam. 16 - Horn of oil to anoint David
• 1 Sam. 16:12 - “The spirit of the Lord rushes upon David” (Spirit claiming someone for a role in the community)


NT and Confirmation

1) Acts 8:14-17 - Peter and John pray that people in Samaria receive the Holy Spirit then lay hands on them.
• Distinct sacramental moment
• Done by 2 Apostles
• Had been baptized, but did not yet receive the fullness of the Spirit
• Baptism + Confirmation = Complimentary ritual actions
2) Acts 19:1-7 - Paul: “Did you receive the Holy Spirit?”
• Ephesians: “We did not know there was a Holy Spirit.”
• Paul: “How were you baptized?”
• Ephesians: “By John (the baptist).”
• *Paul: Baptizes them in the name of Christ and then lays hands on them for the conferral of the fulness of the gifts of the Spirit.


Hippolytus on Confirmation in The Apostolic Tradition (c.215-225)

• Discusses the celebration of Confirmation (among other sacraments)
1) The imposition of hands accompanied by a trinitarian prayer.
• This immediately follows a person’s baptism
• The minister is a bishop
2) The Bishop with his hand next pours the oil of thanksgiving, spreading it on their heads.
• A perfumed/scented oil: Latin West = Chrism, East = Myron
• Accompanied by a trinitarian prayer
3) Embrace them with the fraternal kiss, saying, “Peace be with you.” Person responds, “And with your spirit.”


Tertullian (+226) on Confirmation in his Treatise on the Resurrection of the Body

Baptism and Confirmation are celebrated together:
• “The flesh is washed that the soul may be made spotless”
• “The flesh is anointed so that the soul may be consecrated. The body is signed with the sign of the cross, the overshadowing by the imposition of hands, the flesh feeds on the body and blood of Christ.”
1) Bath 2) Imposition of Hands & Anointing 3) Eucharist


Pope Innocent I’s Letter to Bishop of Gubbio (416)

“As for the signing of infants with Chrism, it is clear that it may be done only by the bishop.”
• Priests are of the second order —> do not have fulness of priestly powers
• Reserved/proper only to the bishop - custom shows this
• “It is allowed for presbyters, in the absence of a bishop, to anoint the person, but not their forehead.”
• Today the child is anointed with the oil of catechumenates on the chest & with chrism on the top of their head


Aquinas on Confirmation

1) The notion of the human person coming to maturity
• Analogy between natural & supernatural
• 1) Baptism: A re-generation.
• Confirmation: Man arrives at the perfect age of the spiritual life.
2) Christ instituted it not by bestowing it but by promising it (Jn. 16)
3) Christ bestowed on the Apostles the reality of the sacrament without the sacrament itself.
4) In this sacrament the Holy Spirit is given for strength in spiritual combat
5) Confirmation is a spiritual growth to maturity, as Baptism is rebirth. • Confirmation: Power to do things which pertain to spiritual warfare
6) The character of confirmation, of necessity, presupposes the baptismal character.
7*) The divine power is not confined to the sacraments.