Flashcards in Sacred Ministers Deck (37)
2 minute explanation for the distinction between bishops, priest, and deacons
Bishops, priest, and deacons share in one order in which each serve as three different grades. In this sense, they all share in the apostolic munus, bishops to the fullest extent with a character imposed at the sacramental ordination as bishops. Bishops experience this munus at its fullest when they act as a college united with the pope as the head of the college. Priests experience this munus to a more limited extent, and deacons to an even more limited extent.
Priest and bishops both share the fact that they are united to Christ the head. In this, they receive power of orders, apostolic succession, etc... which comes with the ontological change. Deacons do not share in this. They are not conformed to Christ the head, but are only ordained to service. It is an open discussion as to whether an ontological change occurs, but it is clear that they do not receive power of orders although they do receive power for governance/jurisdiction and sacramental power in the sense of sacramentals. So, while the three share in different grades of apostolic munus, priests and bishops as a unity differ in essence from the deacons who do not receive power of orders.
This gets at a distinction in powers. There is power of orders and power of jurisdiction. When laity share in power of jurisdiction, they are participating in those areas of governance in which they are already capax and are made habiles by the competent authority. Yet, laity are not capax for all areas of governance. This is seen in those positions which require "full care of souls" for which only priests and bishops are fully capax, in short anywhere in which you need to be a pastor in the full sense of the term.
Minimum staff at a seminary
Rector, vice-rector (if warranted), spiritual director (can. 239. NB: what we call a spiritual director Ghirlanda calls a moderator of the spiritual life), financial administrator, confessors, professors (if classes are taught there), and "academic dean" (can 254 speaks of someone at the seminary who is in charge of the overall organization of their studies. Doesn't say that this person can't also hold other positions at the seminary).
Canons regarding spiritual director, confessors, and moderators
Can 239 para 2: every seminary is to have at least one SPIRITUAL DIRECTOR although seminarians are free to approach any other priest appointed to this work by the bishop. These other priests are "hoc munus" but it doesn't explain this munus, but leaves the assumption that they are NOT the spiritual director spoken of above. Some other type of spiritual guide or moderator.
Can 240: seminary must have ordinary and extraordinary confessors. Seminarians are free to approach whoever they want, whether inside or outside the seminary
Can 246 para 4: Should go regularly to confession. Each seminarian is to have a MODERATOR OF THE SPIRITUAL LIFE who he has FREELY chosen.
What is the point of psychological counseling?
To help a person heal any personal wounds and reach affective maturity so that they might make a complete donation of self to God amid his people in keeping with canon 241 and 1029.
Reasons for a system of incardination
(1) obligation of useful service in a particular church or other structure foreseen by law
(2) just sustenance of the clergy
(3) discipline of the clergy and connection to authority
(4) concrete link with the people of God
Which psychologists should be used?
A psychologist should be chosen who accepts a Christian Anthropology (that man, even though injured by sin, remains free to change through the influence of grace) and uses methods acceptable to the liberty and morality of the subject.
Specifically: Experts should be judged by internal factors and external factors...
Internal: Methodology and coherence of the perizia with other acts of the cause
External: Scientific competence and philosophical anthropology
Ways to Incardinate
(1) original explicit incardination [can 266]
(2) derived explicit incardination [can 267]
(3) derived implicit incardination [can 268 1 & 2]
(4) permission to transfer [can 271]
Four-fold foundation to obedience
(1) Sacramental/Ecclesiological: hierarchical structure inherent within orders itself
(2) Theological: renouncing one's own will in humility as one seeks the will of God
(3) Christological: conformance to Christ, who "emptied himself, taking on the form of a slave."
(4) Pastoral: dedicating one's self by obedience to the service of God and His people
4 sources of obedience
Primary Objective Source: Hierarchical Structure of Holy Orders
Primary Subjective Source: Counsel of Obedience
Secondary Subjective Source: Personal promise made
Secondary Objective Source: Law of the Church [can 273]
In other words, the hierarchical structure of the Church is reinforced by the law of the Church. And the evangelical counsel of obedience is reinforced by my personal promise.
3 levels of obedience
(1) Exterior (2) Will (3) Mind
The structure and law of the Church calls us to obedience of will. The greatest obedience, however, at the level of the counsels is obedience of mind. Obedience of mind allows for peaceful obedience of will.
What is not covered by obedience?
(1) Personal life, unless it impacts ministry
(2) Nothing illegal or immoral can be forced under obedience
(3) Being impeded for a proportionally grave reason blocks the necessity of obedience
(4) Recourse against the bishop can never be blocked through obedience
4 Sources for Celibacy
Primary Objective Source: charism of celibacy
Primary Subjective Source: Reception of Charism
Secondary Subjective Source: Personal Promise made
Secondary Objective Source: Law of the Church
In other words, there is the personal charism of celibacy which is reinforced by the laws of the Church. Then there is the subjective reception of the Charism which is reinforced by your personal promise.
A fundamental, dynamic component of the human person in the fact that they are male or female in their very being, manifestation, and relationships. It characterizes the person in their physicality, mentality, spirituality, genitality, etc...
Is a total giving of self. It brings sexuality to its fulfillment by making it be lived as a genuine donation of self.
An abstaining from genital activity, a regulation of one's sexuality. This is a natural virtue, but it is in strict relation with the supernatural virtue of chastity. It is the presupposition of chastity because if you can't be continent, then you can't be chaste.
Continence can be maintained for a supernatural goal of heaven, a goal which is only realized in the supernatural gift of chastity.
Continence is the integration of human sexuality in an oblative way, chosen for the kingdom of God, and sustained by grace.
One's sexual expression by means of sexual organs
Ways to lose clerical state
(1) Judicial [or administrative] decision that your orders were invalid
(2) Loss through imposed penalty. Diocesan Bishops can only impose loss of clerical state for concubinage per can 1395 because all other penalties giving dismissal are reserved to the Holy See
(3) Rescript from Congregation of Clergy
(4) Administrative Dismissal per 2009 norms
Spiritual Virginity verse Physical Virginity
spiritual virginity is of the heart and does not presuppose physical virginity. Physical virginity lived for itself alone, and not for spiritual virginity, is of itself worthless.
Being closed in on oneself and not having the ability to give oneself to the other
An openness to others, manifested in a priest in the ability to transcend oneself by putting oneself in the person of Christ through the assumption of the values which Christ instilled in those he called to ministry. Part of this is the renouncement of natural fatherhood for a spiritual fatherhood in Christ.
What are the two inseparable elements of vocation?
The free gift of God and the responsible freedom of the person accepting that gift.
What are the four areas of formation?
Spiritual, intellectual, human, and pastoral.
Why is a transsexual not able to be ordained?
If it is a woman who has become a man, the ordination would not be valid because it is not a man.
If it is a man who has become a woman, the ordination would be valid but gravely illicit due to the incurred irregularity of self mutilation (1041, 5) or mental infirmity (1041, 1).
What is an irregularity?
A perpetual impediment which makes one irregular for receiving or exercising orders licitly.
What are simple impediments?
Those things which block one from licitly receiving or exercising orders until the cause of the impediment is removed.
A grave sin made against God himself due to the violation of a vow made directly to God
What are the arguments for why the promise a priest makes is not a vow?
Does anyone have this clearly? My notes are scattered on this...
(1) A vow is not needed to consecrate oneself to God.
(2) The church would have said a priest was vowing himself if that was what they meant
(3) secular institutes and consecrated virgins only make promises
Loss of clerical state
Is a loss of the objective consecration. With this comes a loss of the functional consecration and a suspension of the effects of the divine consecration, but the divine consecration itself, and thus certain sacramental elements, are never lost completely. For example, even a priest dismissed form the clerical state can always confess someone validly if they are in danger of death.
Celibacy and priesthood
Seen as two distinct Charisms in the Latin Church, but the charism of celibacy is seen as are-requisite for the charism of priesthood.
5 reasons for rescript for a priest to be dismissed from the requirement of celibacy
(1) Irreversibility due to: Out of ministry for 5 years, has a child, or attempted marriage
(2) Superiors should have known to not ordain them, but did anyways. Establishes a quasi-right for dispensation
(3) Serious psychological problems that arose before or after ordination
(4) Major scandal due to homosexuality or another sin against the 6th commandment
(5) Danger of death [Even in danger of death, the Holy See must be contacted for a dispensation from celibacy].
NB: generally, this is given for someone who is at least 40, unless thereis a grave reason to give it to someone younger.
Four dimensions to ministerial consecration
(1) Divine Consecration: given by God in the sacramental act itself
(2) Objective Cons.: the status one receives on becoming a priest
(3) Subjective Cons.: the response of the subject to the divine consecration. it consists in living a holy life correspondent to the priesthood
(4) Functional Cons.: the things a priest does and the offices he receives after ordination
Dispensation of a permanent deacon from orders
(1) Irreversible: Absence of more than 5 years from ministry
(2) Serious psychological problems from before or after ordination
Dispensation to allow a permanent deacon to remarry
(1) The great and proven usefulness of the ministry of the deacon to the diocese to which he belongs
(2) That he has children of a young age that need a mothers care
(3) That he has parents or parents-in-law who are elderly and in need of care
2 ends of a personal prelature
(1) the better distribution of priests
(2) their better formation for special service in the local or particular church
What is a personal prelature not?
They are NOT a particular church!
Special 2009 Administrative Faculties for use by bishops in dismissal from clerical state
Can only be used when it is impossible or extremely difficult to follow ordinary canonical procedures (penal or dispensation).
Must show the:
1) proven objective or subjective impossibility that the cleric in question will request a dispensation from the obbligations of the clerical state
2) well documented summary indicating the pastoral efforts expended and canonical measures applied by the ordinary in order to have the offender return to their priestly (or diaconate) obbligations
3) a detailed explanation of the grave difficulties existing in the diocese which prevent the holding of a canonical trial (ie. can't find the guy etc...)
There are 3 special faculties, each of which have their own procedural norms.
Special Faculty 1: dismissal of a cleric who has attempted marriage, and after admonishment hasn't withdrawn from this state. Also of clerics guilty of grave sins against the 6th commandment.
Special Faculty 2: intervene in accord with canon 1399 due to the special gravity of the violation and the need or urgency to avoid an objective scandal. To be applied to deacons only for grave reasons and to priests only for the gravest of reasons.
Special faculties 1 and 2 must be confirmed in forma specifica by the pope.
Special Faculties 3: for clerics who have freely abandoned ministry for a period of 5 consecutive years or more and persist in this state.