Flashcards in Sampling Deck (13):
What is one of the most important things about most types of method?
How representative of the target population your participants are
Why do researchers need to use sampling techniques?
Because it isn't possible to study the whole of the population directly, so they need a sample of people who are representative (or typical) of the target population as a whole
What would statistically be the ideal type of sample?
A random sample, where any member of the population has an equal chance of being selected
Define 'random sample'.
A sample in which any member of the population has an equal chance of being selected
What is the problem with random samples?
It is quite difficult to obtain a truly random sample
Give a strength of random samples.
Everyone in the target population has an equal chance of being selected, so the sample is more representative than other samples
Give 2 weaknesses of random samples?
- Can be complex and time consuming to gather a random sample compared with other methods (e.g. opportunity sampling)
- Can never be a true representation of a target population that is large as not everyone is on a list that can be drawn from
What is opportunity sampling?
When psychologists and researchers take their sample from people that they have the opportunity of studying
Give a strength of opportunity sampling.
A quicker and easier way of sampling people as you take advantage of people around you, so the research can be done more quickly.
Give 2 weaknesses of opportunity sampling.
- May be biased as there could be a certain type of people you see and so it doesn't account for everyone in the target population (unlike random samples), so it is less representative
- Could suffer from experimenter bias, where the researcher unwittingly selects people that they perceive will be co-operative or give the results they want, leading to a lack of validity.
What is self-selecting sampling?
When participants sign up and select themselves to be part of the research, usually responding to adverts in the newspaper, mail, or posters around a university campus.
Give 2 strengths of self-selected samples.
- Fairly easy to administer
- Recruits a large number of participants