Sampling Flashcards Preview

AS Psychology (Methodology) > Sampling > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sampling Deck (13):
1

What is one of the most important things about most types of method?

How representative of the target population your participants are

2

Why do researchers need to use sampling techniques?

Because it isn't possible to study the whole of the population directly, so they need a sample of people who are representative (or typical) of the target population as a whole

3

What would statistically be the ideal type of sample?

A random sample, where any member of the population has an equal chance of being selected

4

Define 'random sample'.

A sample in which any member of the population has an equal chance of being selected

5

What is the problem with random samples?

It is quite difficult to obtain a truly random sample

6

Give a strength of random samples.

Everyone in the target population has an equal chance of being selected, so the sample is more representative than other samples

7

Give 2 weaknesses of random samples?

- Can be complex and time consuming to gather a random sample compared with other methods (e.g. opportunity sampling)
- Can never be a true representation of a target population that is large as not everyone is on a list that can be drawn from

8

What is opportunity sampling?

When psychologists and researchers take their sample from people that they have the opportunity of studying

9

Give a strength of opportunity sampling.

A quicker and easier way of sampling people as you take advantage of people around you, so the research can be done more quickly.

10

Give 2 weaknesses of opportunity sampling.

- May be biased as there could be a certain type of people you see and so it doesn't account for everyone in the target population (unlike random samples), so it is less representative
- Could suffer from experimenter bias, where the researcher unwittingly selects people that they perceive will be co-operative or give the results they want, leading to a lack of validity.

11

What is self-selecting sampling?

When participants sign up and select themselves to be part of the research, usually responding to adverts in the newspaper, mail, or posters around a university campus.

12

Give 2 strengths of self-selected samples.

- Fairly easy to administer
- Recruits a large number of participants

13

Give a weakness of self-selected samples.

- Can result in bias as it could be that there are certain types of people that are willing to sign themselves up for psychological research
- May be more likely to impress the experimenter and so show demand characteristics