SC5a - When ionically bonding, what happens to:
- Metals loose an electron(s) as they are closer to 0/8 electrons in their outermost shell and so its easier to loose electrons
- Non-metals are closer to 8/8 electrons in theri outermost shell and so it is easier for them to gain electrons
SC5a - What is the type of attraction in an ionic bond?
Electrostatic forces of attraction
SC5b - How do you work out the ionic formula of an atom and a compound?
- An atom's ionic formula will depend on the numbe rof electrons in its outer shell.
- If it has to loose electrons to gain a full outer shell, it will be positive by that much.
- If it has to gain electrons it will be negative by that much.
- In a compound, the charges of the ionic compound of an element need to cancel out.
- e.g Mg 2+ and O 2+ will form MgO while Na+ and S2+ will form Na2S
SC5b - What is an ionic lattice structure?
When billons of ions are packed together in a regular structure.
SC5b - What are the main 5 polyatomic ions?
- Ammonium, NH4+
- Hydroxide, OH-
- Nitrate, NO3-
- Carbonate, CO32-
- Sulfate, SO42-
SC5c - Are the melting and boiling points of Ionic compounds high/low and why?
They are high as they have strong electrostatic forces of attraction which require a lot of energy to overcome and break
SC5c - Are ionic compounds electrically conductive and why/why not?
For a substance to be conductive it must contain particles that are:
- Free to move
So Ionic compounds can conduct electricity when they are aqueous or molten.
SC5a - What is a cation and an anion?
- Cation: A positively charged ion (A metal which has lost an electron) Anion
- A negatively charged ion (A non-metal which has gained an electron)
CAT-ions are PAWS-ative (Thank you Mr. Moore #gonebutnotforgotten)
SC5c - How does an aqueous ionic compound conduct electricity?
The negative ions flow to the anode(+) and the positive ions flow to the cathode(-). electrons do not flow.