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Flashcards in Science Chapter 3 Vocab Deck (30):
1

A principle that states that geologic processes that occurred in the past can be explained by current geologic processes.

Uniformitarianism

2

A principle that states that geologic change occurs suddenly.

Catastrophism

3

The science involved with the study of past life.

Paleontology

4

Any method of determining whether an event or object is younger than other events or objects.

Relative Dating

5

A principle that states that younger rocks lie above older rocks if the layers have not been disturbed.

Superposition

6

An arrangement of rock layers in which the oldest rocks are at the bottom.

Geologic Column

7

Any method of measuring the age of an event or object in years.

Absolute Dating

8

An atom that has the same number of protons (or the same atomic number) as other atoms of the same element do but that has a different number of neutrons (and thus a different atomic mass).

Isotope

9

The process in which a radioactive isotope tends to break down into a stable isotope of the same element or another element.

Radioactive Decay

10

A method of determining the age of an object by estimating the relative percentages of a radioactive (parent) isotope and a stable (daughter) isotope.

Radiometric Dating

11

The time needed for half of a sample of a radioactive substance to undergo radioactive decay.

Half-life

12

A break in the geologic record created when rock layers are eroded or when sediment is not deposited for a long period of time.

Unconformity

13

A book written by James Hutton about his theory of uniformitarianism.

Theory of the Earth

14

A rare sudden event on the Earth.

Catastrophes

15

A book written by Charles Lyell in which he reintroduced the theory of uniformitarianism.

Principles of Geology

16

Scientists who study past life.

Paleontologists

17

A break in the Earth's crust along which blocks of the crust slide relative to one another.

Fault

18

Molten rock from the Earth's interior that squeezes into existing rock and cools.

Intrusion

19

When rock layers bend and buckle from Earth's internal forces.

Folding

20

When internal forces in the Earth slant rock layers.

Tilting

21

The stoppage of deposition when a supply of sediment is cut off.

Nondeposition

22

When sediment is removed from its source.

Erosion

23

Exists where part of a sequence of parallel rock layers is missing.

Disconformity

24

Exists where sedimentary rock layers lie on top of an eroded surface of non layered igneous or metamorphic rock.

Noncomformity

25

Exists between horizontal rock layers and rock layers that are tilted or folded.

Angular Unconformity

26

What unstable isotopes are called.

Radioactive

27

An unstable isotope.

Parent Isotope

28

A stable isotope.

Daughter Isotope

29

A break in the Earth's crust along which blocks of the crust slide relative to one another.

Fault

30

Molten rock from the Earth's interior that squeezes into existing rock and cools.

Intrusion