Flashcards in Science Endocrine Gland And Reproductive System Deck (52):
What is the ovary?
The ovary is where the eggs are produced
What is a follicle?
Where the immature eggs are located (site of immature eggs)
What is the Fallopian tube?
Where the eggs travel through to the uterus
What is a uterus
A hollow muscular organ in which the embryo develops
What is the uterus lining
It is prepared to receive the fertilized egg by building up its lining with nurturing tissues and blood vessels
What is the cervix?
Provides a passageway for the sperm to the uterus and is the opening of the uterus
The average menstrual cycle with no fertilization takes how many days?
What change takes place during the menstrual cycle from day 1-14 (unfertilized egg in ovary)
The egg deteriorate and leaves with the blood
What change takes place during the menstrual cycle from day 1-14 (uterus lining)
Starts to shed as well
What change takes place during the menstrual cycle from day 5-13 (unfertilized egg in ovary)
Starts to develop and mature
What change takes place during the menstrual cycle from day 5-13 (uterus lining)
It is going to thicken
What happens to the egg during the menstrual cycle on day 14?
The egg leaves the ovaries (ovulation)
What change takes place to an egg from day 15-28 if no fertilization occurs
The egg leaves the ovaries and travel to the Fallopian tube and to the uterus
What change takes place to an egg from day 15-21 if fertilization does occur
It under goes rapid mitosis and turns into embryo and implantation occurs
What happens to a egg from day 21-266 if fertilization does occur?
A fetus starts to develop in the uterus until it come out
Why does the females need a thick uterus lining if fertilization does occur?
Fertilization needs a lot of blood so the uterus thickens
Why does the female no longer need a thick uterus lining if fertilization does not occur?
So it could get ready for eggs to come and the cycle comes again
What does the endocrine system, regulate, coordinate and control?
Growth and development, male and female development, how your body uses energy, level of salt and sugar in your blood, amount of fluid in your blood, appetite
What are the endocrine glands?
They are the organs of the endocrine system, they produce and secrete hormones
What are hormones?
They are chemical messengers that are secreted(released) from glands into the blood and affect cells in another part of the body
What are target cells?
Hormones only work on certain cells which are the target cells
What is a external stimuli
By way of nerves from the sensory organs in the nervous system
What is the internal stimuli
By the way of nerves and other hormones from inside the body
What is a feedback system?
A chain of events occurring that leads from the stimulus to the response
What is a negative feedback system(instilun)?
Negative feedback means that when enough hormone is in the body, the body stops producing the hormones until it is needed again
What is positive feedback?
Positive feedback means that when enough hormones is made in the body, the body continues to make the hormones
What is one example of positive feedback?
Oxytocin(hormones is continuously released into the blood to target cells when a women is about to give birth)
Adrenaline (where it comes from, where it acts, what it does)
It comes from the adrenal gland. It acts in the heart, blood vessel, eyes. It stimulates heart rate, increases blood pressure, dilates pupils(goes really big)
Progesterone (where it comes from, where it acts, what it does)
It comes from the ovaries, it acts in the uterus, it controls the menstruation in women and play a role in pregnancy
Thyroxine (where it comes from, where it acts, what it does)
It comes from the thyroid gland, it acts in most cells of the body, it controls the rate of metabolic process (how energy is used) in the body and influences physical development
Testosterone (where it comes from, where it acts, what it does)
Comes from tested, it acts in body hair cells, muscles, reproductive structure
Estrogen (where it comes from, where it acts, what it does)
It comes from ovaries, it acts as breast tissue and reproductive structure in females. It stimulates development of female sexual characteristics
Cortisol (where it comes from, where it acts, what it does)
It comes from the outer part of adrenal gland. It acts as multiple tissues. Mental stimulation, breaks down fat and protein to glucose, anti inflammation
Insulin (where it comes from, where it acts, what it does)
Insulin is produced in the pancreas, it acts in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue, insulin causes cell to take up glucose (sugar) from the blood, storing it in the liver and muscle and stopping use of fat as an energy source.
What is hypo and hyper?
Hypo: under/too little
What are testes?
Tested are the main gomads where sperms are produced (spermatogenesis occurs)
What the testes are made of
They are made of small coiled tubes called the seminiterous tubules (where male gametes are produced)
What is the scrotum?
It is an out pocketing of the body walk in which the testes are located
What does the scrotum do?
The scrotum keeps the testes 1 or 2 degree cooler than body temperature . This is necessary for the normal production and storage of sperm
What is a sperm?
Male reproductive gamete(haploid cell) carrying genetic info that is passed on to off spring
What are the parts of the Sperm?
Head (contains nucleus), midpiece (contains mitochondria), tail (flagellum part [allows movement])
What are three major glands that secrete fluid
Cowper's gland( secrete mucus fluid to produce sperm cells from the acid environment of the uretha), seminal vesicles (secretes a mucus fluid component that lubricates and nourishes the sperm), prostate gland (secretes another acid neutralizing fluid component to protect acid found in the female reproductive tract)
What is a semen?
Semen is a mixture of sperm cells and fluid from the glands
What is vas deferens?
Tubes that leave the testes. They carry sperms to the uretha
What is the uretha
Tubes through which speeds leave the body (urine also leave through the uretha)
What are testosterone?
A hormone produced in the teste that regulate sperm production and secondary sex characteristics in males
What is the epididymis?
Tightly coiled tubes found on the top of the testes, stores sperms, expels Sperm to the vas deferens
How does the sperm leave the body?
It starts in the testes then it goes to the epididymis and travel to the vas deferens which connects to the uretha
What is the menstrual cycle?
A hormonally controlled cycle in human female in which an egg matures and is released from the ovary (duration is approximately 28 days and consist of 4 stages)
What is the first stage of the menstrual cycle?
The follicle stage, an egg matured inside ovaries ( the pituitary gland secretes FSH[follicle stimulating hormones]) last from day 1-14
What is the second stage of the menstrual cycle?
The ovulation stage, mature egg is released from follicle in ovary (FSH[follicle stimulating hormone] production is inhibited the pituitary gland secretes LH[luteinizing hormone] which causes the changes in the rupted follicle occur on day 14)