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Flashcards in Scientific Foundations: Industrial Hygiene- Done Deck (60):
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Industrial hygiene

Refers to the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of environmental factors or stresses arising in or from the workplace, which can cause injury, sickness, impaired health and well being, or significant discomfort among workers or among citizens

1

Field of industrial hygiene draws from knowledge in the following areas:

1. Engineering
2. Physics
3. Chemistry
4. Biology

2

Professional organizations for industrial hygienists

1. American Industrial Hygiene Association
2. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists

3

Sources of information to facilitate hazard recognition

1. Qualitative assessment
2. Observational assessment
3. Material safety data sheets

4

Qualitative assessment of the work site requires the following.....

1. Communication with key personnel
2. Communication with other occupational and environmental health professionals
3. Communications with workers and their representatives

5

Why communicate with key personnel such as plant management representatives and supervisors

To learn about materials and processes

6

Why communicate with other occupational and environmental health professionals

To learn about health problems that may be related to exposure

7

Why communicate with workers and their representatives

To learn about their perceptions of exposure

8

Observational assessments are achieved through...

1. Walk through surveys
2. Focused inspections
3. Job hazard analyses

9

MSDSs provide the following information

1. Identification of the material
2. Hazardous chemicals and their common names
3. Physical and chemical properties
4. Routes of exposure
5. Acute and chronic health effects
6. First aid information
7. Exposure limits
8. Precautions for safe handling and use
9. Control measures
10. Organization responsible for preparing MSDS and contact information

10

Quality of MSDSs is -----; the information is sometimes -------- and may be ------ with the same materials from different manufacturers

Variable

Outdated

Inconsistent

11

----------- need to be considered in the context of the specific material's actual use and the control measures in effect

Recommended protective measures

12

An MSDS for a mixture may not include...

All chemical components

13

Chemical components that may not be included on an MSDS

1. Concentration is low
2. Not recognized as hazardous

14

Sources of information to facilitate hazard recognition

1. Qualitative assessment
2. Observational assessment
3. Material safety data sheets

15

Qualitative assessment of the work site requires the following.....

1. Communication with key personnel
2. Communication with other occupational and environmental health professionals
3. Communications with workers and their representatives

16

Why communicate with key personnel such as plant management representatives and supervisors

To learn about materials and processes

17

Why communicate with other occupational and environmental health professionals

To learn about health problems that may be related to exposure

18

Why communicate with workers and their representatives

To learn about their perceptions of exposure

19

Observational assessments are achieved through...

1. Walk through surveys
2. Focused inspections
3. Job hazard analyses

20

MSDSs provide the following information

1. Identification of the material
2. Hazardous chemicals and their common names
3. Physical and chemical properties
4. Routes of exposure
5. Acute and chronic health effects
6. First aid information
7. Exposure limits
8. Precautions for safe handling and use
9. Control measures
10. Organization responsible for preparing MSDS and contact information

21

Quality of MSDSs is -----; the information is sometimes -------- and may be ------ with the same materials from different manufacturers

Variable

Outdated

Inconsistent

22

----------- need to be considered in the context of the specific material's actual use and the control measures in effect

Recommended protective measures

23

An MSDS for a mixture may not include...

All chemical components

24

Chemical components that may not be included on an MSDS

1. Concentration is low
2. Not recognized as hazardous

25

Sources of information to facilitate hazard recognition

1. Qualitative assessment
2. Observational assessment
3. Material safety data sheets

26

Qualitative assessment of the work site requires the following.....

1. Communication with key personnel
2. Communication with other occupational and environmental health professionals
3. Communications with workers and their representatives

27

Why communicate with key personnel such as plant management representatives and supervisors

To learn about materials and processes

28

Why communicate with other occupational and environmental health professionals

To learn about health problems that may be related to exposure

29

Why communicate with workers and their representatives

To learn about their perceptions of exposure

30

Observational assessments are achieved through...

1. Walk through surveys
2. Focused inspections
3. Job hazard analyses

31

MSDSs provide the following information

1. Identification of the material
2. Hazardous chemicals and their common names
3. Physical and chemical properties
4. Routes of exposure
5. Acute and chronic health effects
6. First aid information
7. Exposure limits
8. Precautions for safe handling and use
9. Control measures
10. Organization responsible for preparing MSDS and contact information

32

Quality of MSDSs is -----; the information is sometimes -------- and may be ------ with the same materials from different manufacturers

Variable

Outdated

Inconsistent

33

----------- need to be considered in the context of the specific material's actual use and the control measures in effect

Recommended protective measures

34

An MSDS for a mixture may not include...

All chemical components

35

Chemical components that may not be included on an MSDS

1. Concentration is low
2. Not recognized as hazardous

36

Approaches for estimating the dose of an exposure received by workers include

1. Personal sampling
2. Environmental sampling
3. Biologic monitoring
4. Medical monitoring

37

Sampling techniques that measure exposure before absorption has occurred

1. Skin wipes
2. Cloth patches
3. Noise dosimeters
4. Airborne contaminant detection

38

Approaches to workplace sampling depend on...

1. Type of agent
2. Route by which it is absorbed

39

Skin wipes and cloth patches

Measure amounts of material that have come into contact with skin

40

Noise dosimeters

Worn near the worker's ear, record worksite noise levels

41

Airborne contaminants can be assessed by means of...

1. Personal monitoring at the worker's breathing zone
2. Environmental monitoring in the work area

42

Several important factors govern whether sampling results truly represent worker exposure:

1. Location of sampling device
2. Workers usually sampled are most highly exposed
3. Timing of sampling
4. Length of sampling time
5. Number of samples

43

How do you determine location of sampling device?

With regard to the worker and source of contaminants should be based on worker location and movements

44

Factors to consider regarding timing of testing

1. Seasonal changes
2. Shifts
3. Unintentional releases
4. Other sources of variation

45

Length of sampling time generally represents...

A full shift

46

The number of samples depends on...

1. Type of instrumentation
2. Concentration of contaminant
3. Purpose of sampling

47

Biologic and medical monitoring identify....

The presence of a chemical in the body following exposure

48

Exposure records must be maintained for at least....

30 years

49

Levels of airborne contaminants can be compared with the following guidelines and standards:

1. Permissible exposure limits (PELs)
2. Threshold limit value (TLV) guidelines
3. Recommended exposure levels (REL)

50

Permissible exposure limits

- developed by OSHA
- legally enforceable
- 8 hour, time weighted averages of airborne exposure

51

Threshold limit value guidelines

- developed by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)
- published annually
- 8 hour, time weighted averages with the exceptions of ceiling levels and short term exposure levels

52

Ceiling levels

Uppermost TVL levels, cannot be exceeded

53

Short term exposure levels

The maximum, 15 minute, time weighted averages permitted over a work day, with at least 60 minutes between successive exposures

54

Recommended exposure levels

- developed by NIOSH
- these levels are the exposure that, in the judgement of NIOSH, will not cause adverse health effects in most workers

55

Control strategies for occupational exposures

1. Engineering controls
2. Administrative controls
3. Personal protective equipment

56

Approaches to eliminating or reducing exposure to hazardous substance at the worksite are ordered into a -------- based, in general, on ------------

Hierarchy

Their degree of overall effectiveness

57

Engineering controls

- the preferred way to reduce or eliminate exposures

-include measures designed to:
1. Enclose or isolate operations
2. Improve ventilation
3. Removal or substitution of toxic materials

58

Administrative controls

-minimize exposure

-include:
1. Monitoring or surveillance programs
2. Worker rotation
3. Training to address work practices

59

Personal protective equipment

- examples:
1. Ear plugs and muffs
2. Safety goggles
3. Gloves
4. Coveralls
5. Respirators

-are considered the least-preferred control strategy

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