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Flashcards in Second Midterm Deck (34):

Why do you do relationship development?

Youth is more communicative

More affected by your social feedback

More likely to respect you

Like you

Enjoy being with you

Want to please you

Be more effective teacher

Know the youth better than their individual needs.


How do you do relationship development?

Learn about the youth

Engage in activities with you

Make statements of interest

Make statements of caring

Makes statements of availability

Advocate for youth

Give frequent praise

Give choices

Be empathetic/ sympathetic



Active listen


How you know if you have developed a relationship with a youth?

Communicates with you

Affected by your social feedback

Imitates you

Follows your instruction

Helps out

Talks with you

Gives you things

Jokes with you

Compliments you.


9 interactional components of a relationship development









Allow participation


Two primary qualities involved in counseling

Empathy & Warmth



Understanding what a person is feeling emotionally by: observing a persons behavior, inferring feelings from their verbal and nonverbal behavior, using reflective statements
(to ensure youth understanding as the counselor, help client better understand their feelings, help you better solve the problem), making empathy



Behaviors involved in the nonverbal and verbal expression of understanding, respect, and concern


Describe the main tasks involved in counseling

Obtain information about the problem (1st and 2nd observation)

Determine youth interest

Brainstorm solutions

Evaluate solutions as they affect the youth interest

Help youth choose best solutions in regards to interest

Teach how to implement the solution

Plan when to use it


Main task involved in problem- solving to determine the best solution

Find out interest or concerns( what is important, what their concerns are)

Brainstorm solutions

Evaluate the solutions as they affect the youth interest


What is interest-based problem solving?

A method of problem solving that involves youth interest and coming up with solution's to the problem and evaluating each solution based on each interest. Picking the best solution.


What is the difference between an “interest” and a “position”?

Interest is why you want something

Position is what the youth wants


In Effective Skills for Child-Care Workers describes a problem-solving counseling
procedure used at Boys Town.

S- Situation (define)

O-Options (come up with options)

D- Disadvantages ( list disadvantages of options)

A- Advantages (list advantages of options)

S- Solution/ Stimulation ( using SODA come up with best

F- Follow up with the youth


How is SODA-F different from interest base problem solving?

Interest bases problem solving is different than SODAS- F because it takes into account interest of the youth.


Label and describe these assumptions used for which contracts should be used.

Receipt of positive reinforcement is a privilege not a right

Good relationships are based on even exchange of reinforcement (reciprocity- each part must be willing to give reinforcement to other party)

Value of a relationship is a direct function of the amount of positive reinforcement (the more reinforcement one receives the more the person will value the relationship)

Rules create freedom


Why do we use rationales for contracts?

Use them as rationales for why the family should use contracts


7 ways that contracts help families

Makes life predictable

Reduced confusion

Makes expectations explicit, therefore duties may be more likely to be met

Specifies consequences and reduces arguments about those

Open lines of communication

Influences other people through
positive means rather than negative control

Helps people learn to negotiate and compromise


5 main elements of a contract

Responsibilities- what the youth must do

Privileges- reinforcement for engaging in responsibilities

Bonus clause- extra amount if reinforcement for long-term compliance

Sanction or penalties- additional loss for failure to meet a responsibility

Method of monitoring- method for monitoring if contract is being implemented and implemented correctly determined whether responsibilities, privileges, etc


What two things should a contract do for a family

Add more positive reinforcement into a parties lives- make life more positive

Create no harm by being vague- vagueness causes disagreements


7 features that are important to a good contract

Responsibilities and privileges are specified

Must be capable of performing

Can be monitored

Responsibilities need to be equal to the privileges (reasonable)



All parties agree


5 things that will increase the likelihood that a contract is beneficial

Contracts should be well defined

Large task should be broken down into smaller steps with specific consequences

Great deal of feedback

High reward

Conjugate consequences.


What is conjugate consequences?

Qualitative aspects of a person performance determines the quantity of reinforcement


Advantages of item exchange Contract

Simple to understand

Simple to implement

No calculations.


Disadvantages of item exchange contract

There is no variability in the privileges and doesn’t allow youth to choose

Can only address a few responsibilities

A youth could saturate on on privileges and not work on the contract


How to develop a item exchange contract

Second hand observation to identify responsibilities of the youth and reinforcers to be used as privileges bonuses privileges, and sanctions,

Specifically define elements of contract, prioritize responsibilities and reinforcers

Create a method of monitoring


Components of a school contract

Responsibilities: things the youth should do-
classroom rules, classwork point system for each class, points for test or assignment.

Privileges: reinforcement for engaging in responsibilities- basic privileges( prioritized, defined, cost (package)), special privilege (prioritize, define, cost; may purchase after they have bought highest basic privilege package).

Bonuses: long term compliance (bonus responsibility long term compliance with daily responsibility, Bonus privlege greater amount if reinforcement for long term compliance)

Sanctions: additional loss (points loss (10pts) for not having teacher fill out the school note, privlege loss (basic and special) for not bringing school note home or on a weekend for forging school note.

Monitoring system: school note.


Calculation for awarding points on a school contract

# of classes * # of pts. (2 pts. for rules + 4 pts for format = 6 pts)


Calculation for purchasing privilege packages

Assume youth as 8 classes (8*6)= 48 pts.. 48*60%= 28.8-29 pts.

Highest preferred privilege pacake: phone, tv, computer, snack= 29 pts.

Remove highest preferred privilege and 2 pts: tv, computer, snacks= 27pts.

Remove next highest preferred privilege and 2 pts: computer, snack =25pts.

Remove next highest preferred and 2 pts, snacks = 23pts


How to assign values for special privileges

Assign point value based on priority: list and prioritize special privileges


What are the methods if fading the school note?

Performance based- when the youth is earning
all points available for the contract for a consecutive amount if time then you can discuss fading

Increasing percentage of points needed for basics

Shorten card and decrease amount of feedback given

Decrease the immediacy of receiving pints ans purchasing privileges,


When interviewing teachers and parents, how do you explain the purpose of the program?

Improve school behavior with home-based reinforcement using a school note


5 steps in helping youth with homework

Student should right down assignments

Take home book and assignment

Does homework, check homework

Turn in homework


Awarding points for classroom rules

2 points for all "yes" checks

1 point for any one "no" check

0 points for more than one "no check"


Awarding points for class format

4 points for working 100% of class

3 points for working 75% of the class

2 points for working 50% of the class

1 points for working 25% of the class

0 points for working less than 25% of the class


Awarding points for test and assignment

4 points for an A

3 points for an B

2 points for an C

1 point for an D

0 points for an F