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What was the ‘swing to the east’?

A shift in British Colonial priorities at the start of the 18th century to Africa and Asia after the loss of their US colony. This was fuelled by the growing demands for resources for the growing British industries


Why were trade and the economy reasons for British expansion in Africa?

During the second half of the 19th Century, many new traders arrived in Africa, setting up new trade routes and links as well as exploiting the local natural resources. The traders were often followed by the military


How did personal influence cause British expansion in Africa?

Merchant imperialist such as George Goldie and Cecil Rhodes capitalised on the swathe of natural resources in Africa and set up trade posts and ports, stimulating colonial expansion.

Victorian explores published maps and tales of exotic places also helped to stimulate and grow colonial excitement and interest, ultimately helping colonialism to increase


How did strategic factors cause British expansion in Africa?

British colonies along the West Coast e.g. the Gold Coast and Cape of good hope were built / seized in order to protect their trading ports.

The cape colony was set up purely for strategic factors as it protected the sea route to the Middle East, Australia, China and most importantly India


How did moral factors increase British expansion in Africa?

From the 1860s onwards, many Christian missionaries saw it as their duty to convert the ‘heathens’ in Africa and to promote civilisation as they saw it as their duty to do so. The most notable of these was David Livingstone who went to Africa in 1858 to ‘open a path for Christianity’


Why did Britain’s interest in Egypt grown in the 1860’s?

British mills were being starved of cotton during the American civil war from 1861-65 and so many traders went to Egypt in search of replacement cotton. This resulted in many traders investing in Egyptian cotton and its government


What was Isma’il Pasha’s modernisation program, and when was it initiated?

His modernisation program came into force when he came to power in 1863. It consisted of improving irrigation, schools, street lighting and pushing for the construction of the Suez Canal


When was the Suez Canal completed, and who had the largest share in it?

Construction was completed in 1869 and the French has the largest share in the Canal


Who brought shares in the Canal for Britain, and why?

Benjamin Disraeli brought shares in the Canal for Britain in 1875. This is because the British were fearful that their interest in India and the Cape colony were being threatened by the Canal and so they wanted greater control over it


Why did the British establish control in Egypt in 1882?

-The Egyptian installed an anti-European Government which made the British wary of trate and investment and of the 100,000 Europeans in Egypt
-Political tensions meant that Violence erupted in the streets leaving 50 Europeans dead
-Further revolts resulted in Gladstone sending Naval forces to bombard Alexandria
-British troops invaded and took control of Cairo and the Suez Canal


Who were the Mahdists and what were their aims?

They were Islamic Jihadis who sought to liberate Sudan from Egyptian and British rule


How did Colonel Charles Gordon die?

After General Hicks was killed when attacking the Mahdists in 1883, Gladstone ordered Gordon to oversee the evacuation of British and Egyptian troops from Khartoum in 1884.

However, in 1885 Khartoum was overrun by Mahdists and as a result General Gordon was beheaded. Gladstone did not retaliate as he was anxious to not lose any more life or waste anymore money


What were the main causes of the Indian Mutiny?

-The East India Company (EIC) had started to become administrators rather than just traders. They started to conquer more of India, putting a strain on resources and over taxing the locals

-India landlords were being deprived of their land by the British ‘Governor-General’.
The Doctrine of Lapse allowed the British to take over Indian Land if there was no appropriate heir

-The British flooding of Indian markets meant that local traders had to sell their products for much lower prices which angered many Indian traders

-‘Westernisation’ changed so much in daily life, and many Indians felt as if they were being forced to accept ‘Alien’ culture

-The British failed to appreciate local religions and their importance to the locals. This was demonstrated by the cartridge controversy, which many saw as being the trigger to the Mutiny. This was when new Army cartridges contained animal fat which angered many Indians due to their religious beliefs


What happened during the Indian Mutiny?

-The Mutiny was started by Sepoys in Meent in May 1857
-The Sepoys took control of Northern cities such as Bahadur, Shah and Zafar
-Those involved included disconnected landowners, peasants who hated taxes and those who had lost out under British rule
-The main battlegrounds were at Dehil, Cawnpore and Lucknow
-Cawnpore massacre takes place
-70,000 fresh troops were sent to India, and British forces gave swift and brutal revenge
-Indian princes remained loyal, as did sepoys in Bengal, Punjab, Bombay and Madras
-Gurkhas, Sikhs and Pathon regiments remained loyal
-British rule was not entirely reasserted until June 1858 after the battle of Gwalla, South of Delhi
-Peace was declared on the 8th July 1858


When was the Cawnpore massacre, and what happened during it?

It took place from 4th June 1857 to the 25th June 1857

-Sepoys turned on their British officers and set fire to their quarters
-The British fled to a small fort but were destroyed by canon fire
-On The 10th June British reinforcements left Britain for India
-The Barracks held out until the hospital block was destroyed on the 12th June
-On The 25th June the British agreed to leave in order to allow the survivors in the Barracks to be able to leave. However, that was a trap and the survivors were killed
-In total, the Massacre killed 500 British men, women and children
-In Britain the news of the massacre caused horror and outrage


What was the reaction to the Cawnpore massacre?

-The leader of the British troops Colonel James Neill order troops to murder hundreds of Indians in retaliation
-Hundreds of Indiana were killed, regardless of if they were involved in the massacre or not
-Many of those who were killed were strung up from Mango trees in order to act as a deterrent against defiance


What are som things the Mutiny resulted in?

-The East India Company’s rule ended
-The British Indian Army was reformed: Sepoy units were more closely supervised and Sepoys were treated with greater respect
-The British adopted a policy of appeasement with the powers of old India which meant that Indian rulers had their prestige restored
-British rule was now from a Secretary of State, Indian council and a Viceroy who all ran affairs


What did the Government of India Act of 1858 say?

-The rule of The East Indian company was abolished. The government of India was taken over by the crown and Queen Victoria was the supreme monarch
-The Court of Directors and the board of control were abolished and replaced by the Secretary of State for India and the Indian council
-A Viceroy replaced the EIC’s Governor General
-The Indian people were promised their rights (such as freedom of religion) under this act
-Pardons were given to all Indians apart from those who killed British people and Princes retained their former status
-The Doctrine of Lapse was discarded under this act.


When was the Brussels conference and what was decided?

The conference took place in 1876
They decided that:
-Africa could not develop and harvest resources on its own and so Europeans had to intervene
-The routes to Africa’s Great Lakes had to be developed either by road or rail
-An international African association had to be established in order to coordinate the European’s efforts

The conference increased competition between European countries and led many European nations to establish their own African advisors


When was the Berlin conference, and what was decided?

The conference took place in the middle of the Scramble for Africa in 1884-85
It was decided that:
-All Nations were permitted to trade in the basin of the Congo
-There would be free trade in Africa
-The European powers would help protect the natives and suppress the slave trade
-The powers should support European cultural undertakings e.g. science/charity and protect explorers and missionaries
-If any country took over new land they should inform the other countries who would assert their own claims

This triggered the new scramble for Africa


What was the informal empire?

Countries that were not ruled or governed by Britain but still remained under their influence e.g. through trade deals


How did Britain get counties into its informal empire?

-They threatened invasion or blockade of a country in order for them to cooperate and enact free trade policies e.g. Latin America, Afghanistan
-Sometimes The would simply sign trade treaties e.g. Iran and Siam
-They May install governments that were favourable towards Britain or install those who would be answerable to Britain e.g. Zanzibar
-They signed treaties with other countries that let them set up training bases in those countries which were then settle and operated by the British e.g. the Chinese Empire
-Sometimes British businessmen would set up or invest in a country e.g. Charles Morrison in Argentina


What was mercantilism/protectionism?

-Dominated The 18th Century Empire
-It was the belief in a controlled and regulated system of trade that was monopolised by one superior country
-Colonies were expected to send all produce to Britain, buy only British manufactured goods and import and export only through British ships
-Chartered companies were given a Royal Charter which gave them a ‘monopoly’ of trading in a certain area


What was the impact of free trade on the Empire?

-Dominated The 19th Century Empire
-Inspired by Adam Smith’s ‘Wealth of Nations’
-Britain would enforce free trade agreements with countries using the British Navy
-Under free trade Imperial Investment and trad grew enormously
-At the end of the 19th Century, 20% of Britain’s imports came from its colonies, and the empire provided a market for a 3rd of British Exports
-London became the financial capital of the world and Sterling became the international currency of trade


Why was Britain the world’s foremost trading nation?

-Britain was the world’s most advanced nation industrially, producing goods for the global market
-Britain’s urbanisation Increased its reliance on overseas imports
-Britain was the world’s largest consumer market for raw materials and food


What shipping infrastructure did Britain have for trade?

Clipper ships:
-Small speedy boats
-Used to transport spices/luxuries/post and people

-Used to transport bulkier and less expansive goods around the world
-Compound Steam ships used less coal and were more economical
-In the 1850s development meant companies cut travel time from Britain to W.Africa to three weeks
-By The 1870s steam ships were used to send goods up the Niger River


How were railways used as trading infrastructure?

-Building railways ensured British control over colonies as Britain controlled all aspects of the railways
-Railways could also be used by the Army to move troops around quickly
-Railways provides vital links between rural areas of production and the Sea
-Railways opened up Canadian provinces, allowed Australia to export wheat and wool and allowed South Africa to expand commercial interests into its territories


How were canals used as trading infrastructure?

-Explores used canals to discover what lay behind coastal areas
-Canals were used to facilitate trade


What were the main products of India?



What were the main products of Australia and New Zealand?

-Cheap foodstuffs