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Flashcards in Section 3 (1914-1967) Deck (43)
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Why was the empire so heavily involved in the First World War?

-Many across the Empire felt British, most notably in Canada where many had British parents or Grandparents

-For other nations it was a sense of loyalty to the ‘Mother Country’, such as in Australia and New Zealand


How involved were the colonies in the First World War?

-Overall, 2 million commonwealth soldiers served, of whom 500,000 were killed
-Many commonwealth soldiers took part in major battles such as the Somme, Vimy Ridge and Gallipoli
-Many of the dominions took major economic hits as a result of the war, not just physical tolls


What was the involvement and impact of ww1 on Australia and New Zealand?

-Both were keen to join up and were involved in notable battles, in particular Gallipoli
-Both introduced conscription in 1916

-Both had boosted self worth after the war
-They felt as though they were owed something by Britain due to their efforts in the war


What was the involvement and impact of ww1 on Canada?

-They supplied Britain with munitions and wheat
-They were notable for their bravery at Vimy Ridge in 1917
-They introduced conscription in 1917

-French Canadians were not happy with the war and protested in 1918; anti-British sentiment increased in French Canada


What was the involvement of and impact of ww1 on India?

-1/3 of all troops in France in 1914 were Indian
-In 1917 the Indian government contributed £100million to the war effort

-After the war they were promised responsible self-government


What was the involvement of and impact of ww1 on other colonies?

-In South Africa, general Smuls set up the South African defence force which fought the Germans in its colonies
-1.3m Egyptians were recruited to defend Egypt

-In South Africa a republican movement grew, led by J.B.M Herby which opposed imperialism
-Across Africa, the war was a formative part of the pan-Africanism movement


What were the financial impacts of the First World War?

-Commercial rivals seized British markets (e.g Japan)
-Staple industries were damaged
-US took over Britain in shipping
-Huge debt to the US
-The gold standard decision in 1925 backfired
-The balance of economic power shifted to the US
-WW1 accelerated economic decline, but it was no the sole reason


What were the strategic impacts of the First World War?

-Rapid de-escalation of the armed forces
-Little military expansion
-European rivals were weakened by the war
-Japan’s ambition posed a threat in the east
-The US’s economic might meant its global influence was expanding


What were the territorial impacts of the First World War?

-The empire reached its greatest extent in the immediate post-war years
-Britain gained more territorial claims from League of Nations mandates
-Some new territory had problems, e.g. Palestine
-The loss of Ireland was a significant blow to the Empire’s prestige
-The loss of Egypt and Iraq came soon after the war


What happened during the Amritsar massacre in 1919?

-In the Punjab, rioting had brought British deaths and the near breakdown of civil order in the region
-British troops, commanded by Brigadier General Reginald Dyer, fired upon a crowd containing a mixture of:
Indians who had gathered to protest against the arrest of two nationalist leaders
Sikh pilgrims who had gathered in the public gardens of Jallianwallah Bagh


What was the reaction to the Amritsar Massacre?

-Indian Congress politicians claimed that the way the British had dealt with the protest showed they possessed no moral authority to rule
-The action also galvanised Gandhi’s Non-cooperation movement of 1920-22
-The discontent continued for the next 25 years with other bloody incidents; however the campaigning as a whole was non violent


Where did Gandhi begin his career in 1893?

-He began in South Africa as a lawyer, campaigning against racism and segregation and championing civil rights for the Indians who had settled in the area
-He challenged the British and later the Afrikaners


What did Gandhi do in 1915?

-He returned to India where he became president of the Indian National congress and immersed himself in political affairs
-In 1917 to 1918 he championed the downtrodden indigo workers in the state of Bihar, establishing himself as a national figure


When did Gandhi’s national campaigns for Indian independence begin?

-They began in 1919 after the Amritsar massacre


What movements did Gandhi help to organise?

-The non-co-operation movement of 1920
-The civil disobedience movement of 1930-31 and 1932-34
-The quit India movement of 1942


What were Gandhi’s key beliefs?

-He expressed his key beliefs in ‘Hind Swaraj’ (Home rule for India) in 1909. These were:
-He favoured peaceful resistance to the British in accordance with satyagraha ‘insistence of the truth’
-He preached harmonious relations between Hindus and Muslims and pushed for equal rights for both communities after independence.
-He also rejected divisions based on the caste system, in particular arguing fiercely against discrimination towards the ‘untouchables’
-Gandhi wanted an independent India built on spiritual and social traditions and wanted it to remain rural, not industrialised and urbanised


What was Gandhi’s importance?

-He was both a moral and political leader
-He reconciled western ideas with about democracy with the notion of a distinctive Indian culture
-The methods he used made it difficult for the British to respond as they could not use violence against peaceful protestors


What was the colonial office split into in 1925?

-The dominions office
-The Colonial office


When was the statute of Westminster and what did it do?

-It was in 1931, and it made the dominions autonomous


What was the idea of trusteeship?

-The belief that administrators were there to protect native interest, as well as the white settlers, and to foster the country’s economic growth whilst nurturing it towards greater self-rule


What was Edwin Montague notable for?

-Secretary of State for India from 1917 to 1922
-Introduced reforms to India that led to the government of India act 1919, along with Lord Chelmsford


What was Sir Harry Haig responsible for?

-Lifelong colonial administration for India, after being appointed as a member of Vice Raj’s executive council in 1932
-Opposed Gandhi’s campaign for Indian independence describing him as a ‘menace’


What was Lord Linlithgow responsible for?

-Served as Viceroy of India from 1935 to 1943, and was the longest serving Viceroy
-Actively promoted the further enfranchisement of Indians in the 1935 Government of India act
-Opposed Gandhi and suppressed the civil disobedience campaign


What was Sir Donald Cameron notable for?

-Sought to advance the colonies economically, and supported the entry of indigenous peoples into the civil service
-Served as governor of Tanganyika and Nigeria


What was William Hailey (Baron Hailey) responsible for?

-Governor of Punjab and the united provinces
-Key participant in the conferences leading to the government of India Act 1935
-Helped to produce an African survey in 1938 for the royal institute of International Affairs


What was Sir Phillip Mitchell notable for?

-Became Chief Secretary of Tanganyika In 1934 and went to Uganda in 1935 where he extended Makerere college


What was Sir Charles Arden-Clarke notable for?

-Oversaw the first British African colony to gain independence (the Gold Coast) in 1957


What was Sir Andrew Cohen notable for?

-Sympathetic to the plight of the native African people and understood the need for decolonisation relatively early
-Appointed as Assistant under Secretary of State for the colonies in 1947, finding himself in a position where he could influence steps towards greater independence


What was Sir Ralph Furse notable for?

-Responsible for improving recruitment and training of administrators and reformed the recruitment and training process


What was Makerere College?

-Established In 1922 as a technical college
-Became the prime centre for education in East Africa (Uganda) in 1935
-From 1949 onwards it became affiliated to UCL