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What were the main reasons for British consolidation in Africa in 1890-1914?

-To uphold British colonies in Africa
-To provide better security to pre-existing ports, markets and resources
-New territories were taken in order to stop the advance of Imperialist European powers
-Britain had to officially claim land to show ‘effective occupation’ due to the terms of the Berlin conference
-Attitudes In Britain changed during this time and the Conservative government was determined to uphold Britain’s position in the world


What new African colonies did Britain acquire by treaties?

-Nigeria: 1890 agreement with the French

-Zanzibar: 1890 agreement with Germany

-Uganda: In 1890, King Mwarga handed over power to the British East African company

-Sudan: 1899 British-Egyptian agreement established Anglo-Egyptian Sudan


What new African colonies did Britain acquire by intimidation?

-Zanzibar: In 1896 a Naval bombardment of the Royal palace forced the Sultan to stand down who was then replaced by a pro-British sultan

-Somaliland: The area was reinforced with troops to intimidate the French and Italians in 1898 (Fashoda Incident)and it worked

-Uganda: The Ugandan railway was used to consolidate the British power and presence in Uganda, marking the official takeover


How did the British gain new African colonies using war?

-Ashantiland: The Fourth Anglo-Ashanti War In 1896 led to Britain conquering the territories and forcing the king (Prepeh) off of the Throne. Formal annexation occurred in 1900

-Kenya: Kenya has been in Britain’s sphere of influence. An uprising in 1895 was crushed and led to Kenya becoming a protectorate

-Sudan: Kitichener invades and conquers the whole of Sudan by 1898


What were the main causes of the Second Boer War in 1899?

-Britain sought the unification of the whole of South Africa, but the Boers were fiercely independent
-The diamond rush of 1886 saw a large influx of new British settlers who were dubbed Uitlanders
-Kruger’s Boer Government In the Boer republics put restrictions on the Uitlander’s political freedoms to favour the Boers
-Chamberlin and others in the Colonial office wanted to push on with unification and so encouraged Uitlander discontent

-The British encouraged the Jameson Raid In 1895/6 in the hopes that it would start an uprising, however it failed miserably

-Following The Jameson raid, there was an uneasy peace in South Africa and the Boers were starting to arm themselves as the British sent reinforcements to a South Africa

-Eventually, the Boers were convinced that they had to keep their independence by force
-This ultimately led them to launch a preemptive armed attack against the British in October 1899, kickstarting the war


How did the Boer War pan out?

-The Boers started out very successfully winning many battles and inflicting losses on the British

-The British hit back with heavy reinforcements and were able to annex the Transvaal in September 1900

-Towards the end of the war, the Boers started to use Guerrilla tactics which were very effective
-The British responded by employing a ‘Scorched Earth Policy’ and by setting up concentration camps


What were the main Consequences of the Boer war on Britain?

-22,000 soldiers died and the war cost £217m
-The war highlighted Britain’s need for ‘National efficiency’ as the vast majority of the troops were unfit and not healthy
-It promoted Britain to form alliances around the world


What were the main consequences of the Boer war for South Africa?

-The Boer republics were given self-governance and free elections
-In 1909, all of South Africa united and fought for Britain in WW1


What were the main consequences of the Boer war for the Empire?

-The war encouraged short lived rebellions around Africa between 1902 and 1914
-The war Highlighted the strain that wars put on the empire’s troops as many colonies were left undefended as their troops were moved out to South Africa
-Only The Conservatives remained pro-imperialist


What were British international relations like pre 1890?

-In the early and Mid 19th Century, Russia had been seen as the main threat to Britain and British interests, particularly India e.g. in Afghanistan
-In 1871, Germany Unified and started to compete with Britain economically and militarily
-France wanted to assert its rightful place and so established a foothold in Indochina in the 1860s. Britain responded by annexing territories in Indochina such as Malaya, Burma and Borneo
-Alliances occurred in the late 19th Century: Germany, Italy and Austria Hungary in 1882 and France and Russia in 1894


What was ‘Splendid Isolationism’?

British Isolationism from major world conflicts. It was viewed as a choice and was celebrated as being a great sense of freedom and liberty


What were British and Russian relations like before 1907?

-Afghanistan was a point of conflict between Britain and Russia, as Britain saw Russian occupation of Afghanistan as a threat to India
-In 1900, Russia mobilised 300k troops to Afghanistan, and Britain only had 100k protecting Northern India as they were stretched by the Boer War
-Russia also increased its Naval presence in Toulon on the Mediterranean after Naval agreements with France in 1892. The British saw this as a threat to the Suez Canal, and so India


What was the Fashoda incident in 1898?

-Kitchener received orders to invade the area of Fashoda in Sudan where there was a French presence
-The opposing British and French generals each asserted their Nation’s claim on the area, accusing the other of trespassing
-The press blew the incident out of proportion and suggested that the two nations were on the Brink of war
-Eventually The French rescinded their claim as they were aware of the large British Army presence in Sudan and had internal problems in France


Why did the British abandon splendid Isolationism?

-European alliances were forming around them which left them in an uneasy and vulnerable position
-Britain was being rivalled by Germany who made alliances with the Ottomans, Italians and Austro Hungarians
-Britain joined the Triple Entente in 1907 to settle their concerns which in turn ended their policy of splendid Isolationism


What was the Moroccan crisis of 1905?

-The Kaiser visited Morocco and declared it a free and independent state, which in turn threatened Britain’s commitment to France
-The incident increased tensions between France and Germany


What was the Second Moroccan crisis of 1911?

-The French sent 20,000 troops to crush a Moroccan rebellion in Fez
-The Kaiser sent a German Warship to prevent a French Invasion of Agadir
-The British were fearful that the Kaiser was going to threaten Gibraltar and so prepared the Royal Navy for War
-The Kaiser gave way and Ordered the warship to go home


By 1914, what was the view of the Conservatives towards imperialism?

-The Conservatives won the ‘khaki election’ during the Boer war
-The Conservatives aligned themselves as being the party of imperialists
-The Conservatives sought a stronger, united and more expansive empire
-Salisbury (PM 3 times between 1885 and 1902) was a moderate imperialist, however many in the party were more ardent


What were the attitudes of the Liberals and Labour to imperialism up to 1914?

Liberals: Sought ‘education’ of the colonies and greater home rule but still supported empire

Labour: Freedom ‘through’ empire, not from empire


Why did John A. Hobson criticise empire?

-He believed that the sole purpose of empire and imperial expansion was to find new markets and new opportunities for the rich in Britain
-He believed that the powerful capitalists were the ones who were able to shape government policy to be more pro imperialism
-An example he gave was the Boer War which he saw as being fought to secure gold resources in South Africa for rich mining entrepreneurs and their mining interests


How did Emily Hobhouse help challenge imperialism?

-In 1901, Hobhouse published a report into the conditions of concentration camps used by the British during the Boer War
-This conduct attracted considerable criticism from Liberal and Irish MPs and led to a government enquiry into the conditions of the camps


Why did many in Britain see a need for national efficiency?

-During the Boer War, 40% of all recruits were deemed unfit for service and were turned away
-Poor diet and living conditions had weakened Britain’s manpower
-Poor and weak populations were a threat to both Britain’s imperial supremacy and its industrial strength


What were some measures taken to improve national efficiency?

-1902 Education Act saw the introduction of secondary schools
-The modernisation of the Royal Navy with the introduction of new dreadnoughts in 1906
-The creation of Imperial College In 1907
-Spate of Liberal social reforms:
-Free school meals 1906
-School medical inspections 1907
-Children’s welfare charter 1908
-Old age pensions 1908
-Trade boards act 1909
-Unemployment and health insurance 1911, providing free medical treatment


What was the popular press like towards imperialism by 1914?

-In 1896, Alfred Harmsworth pioneered the production of the Daily Mail
-The Daily Mail promoted imperialism and filled its pages with great accounts of war especially during the Boer War when they praised the heroism of the British troops
-Hobson criticised the Daily Mail in 1902 for Being ‘crude sensationalism’


What were the main events in British interest in Egypt and the Sudan?

1860: The British have a policy of non-interest towards Egypt and leave it to the Ottomans

1863-1879: During the Egyptian debt crisis of 1875, the Egyptian ruler sought economic advice from the French and British

1869: The Suez Canal opens

1878-1882: French and British financial experts take dual economic control over Egypt’s economy

1882: Mahdist revolts leave 50 Europeans dead, prompting the British Government to launch a full occupation of Egypt, ending dual control

1884: The British order the withdrawal of Egyptian troops from Sudan, resulting in British humiliation at the siege of Khartoum and the death of Colonel Gordon

1898: The Fashoda incident results in the French withdrawing from Sudan, leaving both Egypt and Sudan under British control


What were the main hindrances to British rule in Egypt:

The Capitulations:
-Any new Egyptian law that affected Europeans had to be agreed on by all governments represented in Egypt.
-This slowed down lawmaking

The Caisse de la Dette:
-Major European powers controlled Egypt’s finances
-The Caisse could stop Britain from spending Egyptian money how they pleased. E.g. The French and Russians refused to allow Kitchener’s conquest of Sudan to be Financed

Mixed Courts:
-Set up to deal with cases involving both Egyptian and Europeans
-Presided over by both European and Egyptian judges
-The Judges in these courts were not always favourable to the British cause


What was Evelyn Baring’s role in Egypt?

-He acted as the advisor to the Khedive and was the British Consul General
-He made efforts to relive Egypt’s £70m of debt by cutting back Bureaucracy and by investing in communications and irrigation in Egypt to try and boost their economy. These efforts helped Egypt to enjoy new found prosperity
-Baring reformed Egypt’s Army by placing 6000 British troops in it to ensure that their interests were not jeopardised in the Suez region
-Baring was wary of improving education too much, as he had seen what educated Indians did. Therefore, Egyptians were only offered a few years of primary education


Why did Egyptian Nationalism grow at the end of the 19th Century?

-The British did little to help Egyptian people, they only sough cotton for their Lancashire mills
-There were no real opportunities for educated Egyptians, and there was a growing middle class
-Egyptians appeared even less likely to rule their own affairs, and the Khedive was corrupt

-The Nationalist Party (al-Hizb al-Watani) was formed in 1881 and was revived in 1893
-The party sought an end to British occupation
-The party was ignored by Baring
-The 1906 Denshwai incident added to the nationalist discontent


What were some problems that Britain faced in Sudan?

-It took the British more than 30 years to subdue the tribes in the South of Sudan
-The British attempted to create a modern government, establish a penal code, taxes and land denture for the Sudanese people. However, many refused to pay taxes resulting in the British bringing down the heavy hand of the law
-33 punitive expeditions were launched to force tribesmen to accept order
-There were numerous Mahdist revolts between 1900 and 1905, with the British responding with public hangings without a trial


What were some aspects of Indian rule that helped to consolidate British control in India?

-British officials continued to enjoy unrestrained power
-The British were able to maintain their rule through both collaboration and ‘divide and rule’
-Viceroy Curzon made many reforms to make India more stable e.g. the introduction of the Gold Standard
-These developments required more British intervention in India
-The British had effective collaboration with the Native population
-There was Indian representation on provincial councils who endorsed British dominance
-Many educated Indians saw the British as the way forward


What were some aspects of Indian rule that wakened British rule?

-There were strict limitations to the size of the civil service, causing there to be only 3-4 officials per Indian district
-The Indian National Congress became increasingly critical of British rule e.g. critical of the taxes imposed by Britain
-There was increasing pressure from humanitarian groups to reform British rule in India
-There was an ill-fated attempt to Partition Bengal which was seen as an attack on traditional boundaries and stirred tensions
-The All Indian Muslim League was formed in 1906