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What is an intermediate conclusion?

• A reason that is supported by other reasons, but also supports the main conclusion.
• i.e. Like a halfway conclusion that acts as a reason for the main conclusion


What is the common notation for an intermediate conclusion?



How can you identify an intermediate conclusion in an argument?

1) Identify all the conclusions by looking for indicator words and using the “Therefore Test”.
2) Use the “Therefore Test” with all of the conclusions to find the intermediate and main conclusion.
3) The intermediate conclusion will usually be a reason to accept the main conclusion.


Find the intermediate and main conclusions:

“Clowns are responsible for juggling and pie-throwing so they require good hand-eye coordination and concentration. They also need to have excellent comedic timing, a good range of jokes and a willingness to throw themselves around in the name of slapstick humour. Thus, being a clown is a very demanding job. Mocking the clowning profession might dissuade talented people from considering this fulfilling career option. Therefore we should laugh with clowns, but not at them.”

Intermediate conclusion:
“Being a clown is a very demanding job.”
Main conclusion:
“We should laugh with clowns, but not at them.”


What are the 3 types of intermediate conclusion questions you might get?

When given a source:
1) Multiple choice find the IC or Identify the element
2) Find and write out the IC
When writing your argument:
3) Include an IC in the argument


Define ambiguous.

When a statement has more than one possible meaning.


Define assess.

Looking at the strengths and weaknesses (of an argument).


Define a belief.

• Something that someone thinks is true.
• It can be true or false (and not always possible to prove which).


Define a challenge.

• A question that highlights a possible weakness in an argument.
• However, this challenge does not necessarily mean that there is definitely a weakness -> There may be an explanation.


Does a challenge always prove a weakness in an argument?

No, there may be an explanation for what is being challenged.


Define a coherent argument.

An argument that makes sense (i.e. it’s logical and not confusing).


Define a consistent argument.

An argument in which all the reasons can be true at the same time.


Define contradict.

• When two statements are the exact opposite of other.
• Contradictions are an inconsistency.


Define converse.

A statement that reverses the two events in a statement of hypothetical reasoning.


Give the converse of:

“If it’s not broken, then don’t repair it.”

“If you don’t repair it, then it’s not broken.”


Define counter.

When you disagree with an argument by providing a claim that goes against it.


What is the technical term for this occurrence:

“The Prime Minister was a reliable and trustworthy man. However, he was unreliable and you couldn’t trust him.”



Define imply.

• When a statement leads on to an unstated claim that logically follows from it.
• e.g. “The sky is very overcast, so I won’t need sunglasses” implies that the sun is not visible.


Define an inconsistent argument.

An argument in which there are two statements that can’t both be true at the same time.


What is the technical term for this occurrence:

“Gavin is the worse dancer, and an awful person. However, Gavin is not as bad a dancer as Ann, so Ann should be fired from the same troupe instead of Gavin.”

Inconsistent argument.


Define infer.

Look at reasons or evidence and decide what conclusions they could support.


Define knowledge.

Being certain of what is true because you have enough information to prove it.


Give an example of a situation where on person has more knowledge than another.

• Liz might say “I know the food will be spicy” -> She cooked it and put lots of spices in -> So she has knowledge
• Liz’s friend might say “I know the food will be spicy” -> Liz’s food has always been spicy, but they can’t be certain it will be spicy again -> So they don’t have knowledge


Define opinion.

A personal belief that is based on taste or preference, not on facts.


Can an opinion be right or wrong?

No, they are just a person’s viewpoints.


Define reasoning.

Drawing a conclusion from reasons and evidence.


Define refute.

• Giving reasons which prove that an argument is wrong.
• e.g. “I refute that claim because it’s based on an out-of-date study.”


Define repudiate.

• Saying that an argument is wrong without giving reasons why.
• e.g. “I repudiate that, it’s obviously wrong.”


Define strengths and weaknesses.

• Strengths are parts of an argument that help support the conclusion effectively.
• Weaknesses are parts that don’t support the conclusion, or things missing from the argument that should be included.


Define structure.

The order of reasons, conclusion and other elements in an argument.