What is the difference between hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia?
Hyperglycemia is a state in which the blood glucose level is above normal. Hypoglycemia is a state in which the blood glucose level is below normal. (pg 624)
What are the signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia?
•Warm and dry skin
•Intense thirst, Frequent urination, Dehydration
•Rapid, deep breathing (Kussmaul respirations)
•Sweet fruity odor to breath
•Staggering, intoxicated appearance
•Rapid, weak and thready pulse
What are the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia?
•Pale, cool, and moist skin
•Normal or rapid breathing
•Normal odor to breath
•Rapid, weak pulse
•Irritability, confusion, anxiety
•Staggering, intoxicated appearance
What is the medical term for excessive urination?
Polyuria (pg 625)
What is the medical term for excessive thirst?
Polydipsia (pg 625)
What is the medical term for excessive hunger?
Polyphagia (pg 625)
By what routes can a poison enter the body?
There are four routes by which a poison can enter the body. (pg 672; figure 19-1)
When a patient's heart rate decreases, what happens to cardiac output?
Cardiac output decreases (pg 529)
When and where will you hear wheezing? What does it sound like?
A high pitched whistling sound heard in the lower airway on exhalation. (pg 492)
When and where will you hear stridor? What does it sound like?
A high pitched sound heard in the upper airway on inspiration. (pg 493)
When and where will you hear crackles (rales)? What does it sound like?
A crackling sound or bubbling sound heard in the lower airway on inspiration. (pg 493)
Where will you hear rhonchi? What does it sound like?
A lower pitched rattling sound heard in the upper airway. (pg 493)
When is an allergic reaction a true emergency?
When the allergic reaction presents as respiratory distress or as cardiovascular distress in the form of shock. (pg 650)
What is Somatic pain and what causes it? How is it felt?
Somatic pain from the abdomen travels along the neural routes.
What should you tell your patients about what you're doing?
Let them know what you are doing and why you are doing it.
If a patient has an altered LOC, what is the first thing you should consider?
Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
What are the signs and symptoms of an AMI (acute myocardial infarction)?
•Sudden onset of weakness, nausea, and sweating.
•Unchanging chest pain, discomfort, or pressure
•Pain, discomfort or pressure in the lower jaw, arms, back, abdomen, or neck.
•Dyspnea (shortness of breath)
•Pink, frothy sputum
What is a silent AMI?
A silent AMI is an AMI in which no chest pain is felt. May have other common complaints associated with ischemia, a feeling of "indigestion", or simply fatigue. (pg 533)
Who is most likely to experience a silent AMI?
Older people, women, and people with diabetes. (pg 533)
How does the immune system work? What are the components?
In allergic reaction, the immune system releases chemicals to combat the allergen. Among these chemicals are histamines and leukotrines, both of which contribute to an allergic reaction.
If you need help, who you gonna call?
Medical Control (not the Ghost Busters)
Which component of SAMPLE will offer the best clue as to what is wrong?
The "E" component.
How does the body compensate when there's too much sugar?
Hyperglycemia results in DKA. The body compensates with deep, rapid breaths (Kussmaul respirations) in order to blow off carbon dioxide. urination, uses fat to metabolize, (see signs of hyperglycemic)
Normal, good, unlabored ventilation, sometimes known as quiet breathing or resting respiratory rate.
If you have JVD, you should listen to _____________
What are the 3 stages of a seizure?
1. The aura (the warning)
2. The ictus (the fit itself, described as tonic or tonic-clonic)
3. The postictal state (the recovery)
What is happening to the brain during a prolonged seizure?
What is a seizure?
A convulsion, or a temporary alteration in consciousness. The different types can be classified as generalized, partial, and status epilepticus. (pg 573)
Tonic vs Clonic?
Tonic is characterized by tensing and muscle rigidity. Clonic is characterized by relaxation and rhythmic movements. (pg 574)
Define "referred pain".
Pain that is felt in an area of the body other than the area where the cause of the pain is located. (pg 602)