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Flashcards in Section 7: Epidemiology Deck (30)
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What is epidemiology

study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations and the application of this study to control of health problems

1

What are the types of epidemiological studies

-descriptive
-analytical
-experimental

2

What is etiology

the study of why things occur, the study of causation

3

Who is Edward Jenner

he made the observation that cowpox and smallpox are closely related
-prevention of smallpox by vaccinating with cowpox

4

Who is John Snow

made the observation that outbreak of cholera was linked to public water pump
-ended the epidemic by removing pump handle

5

What are the factors necessary for disease transmission

-pathogenic organism
-reactive host
-environmental conditions

6

What are the methods of transmission

-Direct
-indirect
-vector

7

What is direct transmission

person to person contact
-person can have clinical disease or subclinical

8

What is a carrier

individual that does not exhibit symptoms but harbors organism causing disease

9

What is indirect transmission

-contaminated food or water
-contact with inanimate objects (fomites)

10

What is vector transmission

-insects=notably mosquitos, flies
-arachnids=ticks

11

What are the patterns of host/pathogen relationships

-mutualistic
-commensal
-parasitic

12

What is a mutualistic relationship

type of symbiosis in which both organisms benefit

13

What is a commensal relationship

type of symbiosis in which there is no obvious benefit for organisms involved

14

What is a parasitic relationship

type of symbiosis in which only one partner benefits at the expense of the other partner

15

What is a reservoir for infection

long term host of pathogen of an infectious disease, usually without injury to itself and serves as a source from which other individuals can be infected

16

What is a primary reservoir

inanimate
-microbes are viable and multiply
ie: food, soil

17

What is a secondary reservoir

inanimate
-microbes are viable, but do not multiply
-air. soil

18

What is zoonosis

any infectious disease that can be transmitted from animals, both wild and domestic, to humans

19

What are the risk factors for disease

-age
-gender
-ethnicity
-nutrition
-pre-existing disease
-occupation
-food and water

20

What are patterns of disease

-endemic
-epidemic
-outbreak
-pandemic

21

What is a endemic

infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs. Constantly present in the population

22

What is an epidemic

disease that appears as new cases in the population in a period of time at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected. Higher incidence

23

What is an outbreak

small and localized epidemic

24

What is a pandemic

global epidemic of an infectious disease that affects people or animals over an extensive geographical area

25

What is herd immunity

when a critical portion of a population is immune to a disease, either through natural immunity or vaccination, a phenomenon called herd immunity develops
-results in inability of an infectious disease to spread due to the lack of a critical concentration of susceptible host

26

What is morbidity

measurement of the incidence of a disease
-measures new events, so is also measure of risk
-calculate morbidity to determine how fast the disease develops in a population

27

What is prevalence

prevalence of a disease is the number of individuals affected at a specific time

28

What is attack rate

The attack rate is the proportion of people who are exposed to the disease during the outbreak who do become sick

29

What is mortality

death rate due to a given disease
-gives information about the severity of the disease