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Flashcards in Section 6: Harm Studies Deck (21)
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What is the hierarchy of research evidence

systematic reviews>RCT's>cohort studies>case-control studies>case series>case reports>editorials and opinions>animal research and lab studies

1

What is a Harm Study

Assess the casual relationship between exposure and disease

2

What is a confounder

anything that independently affects the exposure and the outcome

3

What are Hill's criteria for causality

-temporal relationship
-experimental evidence
-dose response relationship
-statistical significance
-consistency across studies
-plausibility

4

Are RCT's used for Harm studies

RCT's are usually too small and too short to be valid for detecting harm

5

Are cohort studies prospective or retrospective

prospective

6

What are cohort studies useful for

studying interactive causes of harm
-compare multiple interactive causes

7

Is a cohort study ethically permissable

yes, it is more so

8

What does it mean to estimate risk

if there is a causal relationship, how strong is it?
What is the risk of disease in exposed individuals vs those not exposed

9

If the relative risk = 1 what does that mean

risk is equal, no association

10

If relative risk is >1

exposure increases disease risk

11

If relative risk is >1

exposure reduces disease risk

12

Is a case control study prospective or retrospective

retrospective -useful if the outcome of interest is rare of takes a long time to develop

13

Can true risk of population be obtained from a case control study

no, the true risk of event occuring in the population cant be calculated because it is a retrospective study

14

How is a case control study used

to calculate the odds that a group was, or was not exposed to some variable

15

If the odds ration of a case control study is = 1

risk is equal, no association

16

If the odds ration of a case control study is >1

exposure increases disease risk

17

If the odds ration of a case control study <1

exposure reduces disease risk

18

What is a Case study useful for

-no comparison made with another group
-comparison is critical for deriving causal relationships
-useful for generating hypotheses

19

Who is Ambroise Pare

discovered alternative to using boiling oil to cauterize wounds

20

Who was James Lind

developed a trial with a series of test groups to determine if lime juice treated scurvy