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1

One-way structural system

Load transmitted through material in one direction at a time

2

Joists

Light, closely spaced members spanning between beams / bearing walls

3

What is the most common type of solid wood beams?

Plank and beam system

4

Plank and beam system

Members of 4-6” thicknrssvspan between beams/girders at spacing of 4,6,8 ft. Wood decking is used to span between beams.

5

Lightweight I-shaped joists

Factory made - consists of top and bottom chord of solid or laminated construction separated by a plywood or oriented strand board web

Longer spans than typical wood joist system

6

When would you use a lightweight I-shaped joist system?

For residential or light commercial construction

7

What are 4 benefits of steel structural systems?

1. Availability
2. Adaptability
3. High strength
4. Ductile

8

Ductile

Member can tolerate some deformation and will return to its original shape

9

What are 2 common steel structural systems?

1. Beam and girder
2. Open web steel joists

10

What distances do beams and girders span?

Girders = short distances
Beams = longer distances

11

What is the typical span for steel beam and girder structural systems?

40-80 feet

12

What’re 2 types of open web steel joist systems?

1. Long span (up to 96 foot spans)
2. Deep long span (up to 144 foot spans)

13

What type of construction is the open web steel joist system best suited for?

Low rise construction where floor to floor height is not critical

14

What is a disadvantage when using a cast-in place concrete structural system?

It requires framework, takes a lot of time

15

What is a benefit of a cast-in place structural system?

Unlimited shapes

16

What are 2 benefits if using pre-cast structural systems?

1. Good quality control (factory made)
2. Quick construction time

17

Tilt up panels

Concrete wall panels pre-cast on site

18

What are 2 examples of one-way concrete structural systems?

1. Beam and girder
2. Concrete joists

19

What are 3 benefits to using a concrete beam and girder structural system?

1. Economical
2. Easy to form
3. Allows penetrations / openings in slabs

20

List 3 types of two-way concrete structural systems

1. Flat plate (simplest)
2. Flat slab
3. Waffle slab

21

When would you use a two-way concrete structural system?

For rectilinear bays where the distance between columns is the same in both directions

22

When would you use a flat plate concrete structural system?

For lighter loads and shorter spans (loads increase near the columns) and when floor to floor height must be kept to a minimum

23

When would you use a flat slab concrete structural system?

For heavier loads. Slab thickness will be increased at the columns or column capitals will be added to resist shear failures

24

Which of the 3 two-way concrete structural systems can handle the heaviest loads and longest spans?

Waffle slab (spans up to 40 feet)

25

What type of concrete is pre-stressed?

Pre-cast concrete

26

Pre-stressed

High-strength cables are stretched in pre-cast forms, before concrete is poured. Once concrete achieves min. Strength, the cables are released, transferring compressive stresses into the concrete

27

Post-tensioned concrete

Post-tensioning steel (tendons) stressed after concrete has been poured and cured

28

When is post-tensioned concrete useful?

For jobs requiring high strength, but it’s too difficult to transport pre-cast members to the site

29

What are 4 benefits to using masonry?

1. High compressive strength
2. Fire / weathering resistant
3. Weak to tension & bending
4. Offers strength & design flexibility

30

List the 3 types of masonry bearing wall construction

1. Single wythe
2. Double wythe
3. Cavity