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Flashcards in Semantics Deck (18)
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1

Semantics

Semantics studies the meaning or meaning potential of various kinds of expressions: words, phrases, and sentences

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Denotation

The constant, abstract, and basic meaning of a linguistic expression independent of context and situation

3

Connotation

The subjectively variable, emotive components of meaning

4

Sense realtions

Semantic relations between words
In many cases it males more sense to talk of how one word relates to other words kn the language rather than to attempt characterizing its meaning using semantic features

5

Synonymy

The concept of synonymy is used to describe semantic equivalence or rather extensive semantic similarity between two or more lexemes

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Non-gradable antonymy

Either-or relationship
The two antonyms exhaust all possible options in a particular conceptual domain

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Gradable antonymy

If one member of the pair is negated it does not necessarily imply that the other member is asserted

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Converseness (relational oppositeness)

Describe the same situation from a different perspective

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Directional oppositeness (reversiveness)

A change of direction, in particular when motion is concerned

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Hyponymy

Some terms stand in relation of subordination to a more general expression

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Terminology

Hyponyms/hyperonyms

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Semantic properties

Hyponyms have all the semantic properties of the hyperonym plus some additional ones, which dinstinguish them from the hyperonym on the one hand, and from other hyponyms situated on the same hierarchical level on the other

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Meronymy

Part-whole relationship
Is not necessarily a transitive realtionship

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Polysemy

One lexeme with several meanings

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Homonymy

Two different lexemes that sound alike and/or are spelled alike with unrelated meanings

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Lexical fields

Groups of words which cover different or partly overlapping areas within the same extralinguistic domain

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Structuralist semantics

Meaning defined and analysed from a purely language-internal perspective

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Cognitive semantics

Meaning as linked to the way we perceive the word and group phenomena into conceptual categories