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Flashcards in What Is Language Deck (22)
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1

Language

Very significant part of what males us human and allows us to communicate as social beings
Non-instinctive method of communicating ideas, emotions and desires by humans by means of voluntarily produced symbols

2

Linguistics

Scientific discipline concerned with the study of language

3

Vocal-auditory channel

Sounds are emitted from the mouth and perceived by the auditory system

4

Broadcast transmission and directional reception

The recipient can tell the direction that the signal comes from and thus can identify the originator of the signal

5

Transitoriness of signal

The signal lasts a short time
Speech waveforms fade rapidly

6

Interchangebility

All utterances that are understood can be produced

7

Total feedback

The sender of a message also perceives the message. You can monitor and correct your speech while uttering it

8

Specialisation

The signal produced is especially produced for communication and is not the side effect of some other behavior
Animal communication is stimulus bound

9

Semanticity

There is a fixed relationship between a signal and its meaning

10

Arbitrariness

There is an arbitrary relationship between a signal and its meaning. That is, the signal is related to the meaning by convention or by instinct but has no inherent relationship with the meaning

11

Discreteness

Language can be said to be built up from discrete units

12

Displacement

Communicating about things or events that are distant in time or space

13

Productivity

Human language is an open system. We can produce potentially an infinite number of different messages by combining the element differently

14

Traditional transmission

Each generation needs to learn the system of communication from the preceding generation. General ability to acquire language bit not born with the ability to produce utterances in a specific language

15

Duality of patterning

Large numbers of meaningful signals are produced from a small number of meaningless units

16

Signifier

The form being used as the sign

17

Signified

The meaning represented by the sign

18

Iconic sign

Involve a direct representation of imitation of the meaning of the sign. Some key characteristics of the signified are present in the sign

19

Indexical sign

Have a direct physical or causal connection to their meaning that can be inferred by the observer

20

Symbolic sign

Signs in which there is no resemblance between the signifier and the signified. The relation is based solely on convention

21

Diachronic linguistics

Languages are studied from the point of view of their historical development

22

Synchronic linguistics

Languages are studied at a theoretical point in time: one describes a state of the language, disregarding whatever changes might be taking place