Kinetic energy equation

KE = 1/2mv^2

Potential gravitational energy equation

GPE = mgh

elastic energy equation

Eel = 1/2kx^2

what is work

a force applied over a distance

-the force has to be in the same direction of motion

what is power

work divided by time

what is the difference between work and power

work is force applied and power is force applied over time

define momentum

when you’re moving, momentum keeps you moving

object w a lot of momentum is hard to stop

-p=mv

define inertia

Fnet x t

I = F/t

what is impulse

the change in momentum

what is the law of conservation of momentum

the total momentum before a collision = the total momentum after a collision

what’s an elastic collision

colliding objects bounce off of one another

what’s an inelastic collision

colliding objects stick together

the area underneath a force vs time graph tells you what

Impulse or change in momentum

describe charging by conduction

charging a neutral object without touching it

describe charging by induction

taking a charged object and transferring that energy to uncharged objects, making the charges in the uncharged spheres separate

______ charges attract

opposite

_______ charges repel

like

what is electron affinity

the change in energy of a neutral atom when an electron is added

Charge of 1 electron

1 electron = -1.6 x 10^-19 C

what is Ohm’s law

V = IR

- v = voltage
- I= current
- r = resistors

define voltage

volts produce electric field to cause current to flow

define current

amount of charge that passes a spot in a given amount of time

define resistors

the only component in a circuit that reduces the amount of current that passes through that part of the circuit

what factors do affect the speed of mechanical waves

The medium

what factors don’t affect the speed of mechanical waves

Amplitude, wavelength, frequency, etc

describe the Doppler effect

the effect produced by a moving source of waves in which there is an apparent upward shift in frequency for observers towards whom the source is approaching and an apparent downward shift in frequency for observers from whom the source is receding

what is the wave equation

Frequency x wavelength

describe rotational inertia

resistance to change in rotating motion

what factors affect rotational inertia

- mass
- distribution of mass
- the farther the mass is located from the axis of rotation, the higher the rotational inertia*

what is angular momentum

L= Iw

L- angular momentum

I- rotational inertia

w- angular velocity

what is rotational speed

number of rotations in a certain amount of time

- aka frequency
- measured in RPM(revolutions per minute) or Hertz(revolutions per second)

what is a centripetal force

pulls together

what is a centrifugal force

pushes apart

define tangential velocity

V= 2pi(r)/time

law of universal gravitation

Fg = Gm1m2/r^2

cosF x D

work

work is measured in _____

Joules

power is measured in

joules/second

-aka a watt

to change momentum must apply ________

a net force

coefficient of restitution

measures elasticity of material

- 1 is perfectly elastic
- 0 is perfectly inelastic

6.25 x 10^18 e-

1 coulomb

F = k(q1q2)/r^2

coulomb’s law

I = change in Coulomb’s/change in time

current

Coulomb’s/second

amp

to produce electricity you need what?

a closed loop/circuit

things ____ about its internal axis

rotate

things _____ about an external axis

revolve

tangential speed

speed of something as it moves along a circular path

T= 1/f

period

Hooke’s Law

K= change in F/change in X

velocity in SHM

- positive to the right and negative to the left
- zero at the end points
- max at midpoint in either direction

acceleration in SHM

- positive when x is negative
- negative when x positive
- zero at the center
- max at the endpoints

period and frequency are ___________ related

inversely

To change the momentum of an object you must change either the ______or________

Mass or velocity

Ac= v^2/r

Centripetal acceleration

Fc= mv^2/r

Centripetal force