September 17 - Scholarship and Survey Flashcards Preview

Adult Language Disorders > September 17 - Scholarship and Survey > Flashcards

Flashcards in September 17 - Scholarship and Survey Deck (39):
1

Aphemia

Reduced Vocabulary and speechless
Distinguished by Broca from amnesia;

2

Amensia

Loss of the association between idea and words
Distinguished by Broca from amnesia;

3

Hughling Jackson

Propositionality - When we use language for meaningful purpose its not the loss of the word, its the loss of communication

Superior & inferior languages
Superior = communication language
Inferior = Social words, rote language

Verbal apraxia as a discrete deficit
Anatomical hierarchy of motor functions

4

Wepman

Refined definition of aphasia - its not only a language impairment but affects the entire personality

5

Wernicke

Storage for auditory images

6

Schuell

Theory that no longer exists

Group 1 = simple aphasia - most potential for recovery
Group 2 = aphasia is complicated by "central involvement of visual processes"
Group 3 = simple aphasia + sensorimotor involvement
Group 4 = simple aphasia + visual involvement and dysarthria
Group 5 = Global aphasia

7

Syndrome

Group of findings occurring together with sufficient frequency suggests the presence of a disease process

Variability, inexactness, and incompleteness

8

Exact Syndrome

Rare in aphasia as in any medical disorder

9

Dorsal-Lateral Prefrontal Symptoms

Abstract thinking impairment
Impaired ability for multiple information
Failure to shift from a situation
Impaired error utilization - lack of self-criticism
Rigidity in problem solving

10

Orbitofrontal Cortex Symptoms

Typically associated with TBI and tumors

Altered personality/social behaviors

11

Medial Prefrontal Lobe Symptoms

Behavior cessation
Akinetic-Mutism - a condition of altered consciousness marked by patient appearing alert but silent and immobile; retain sleep/wake cycles; inattention
Abulia

12

Abulia

A lack of motivation/desire to perform a task or movement; procrastination

13

Inferior Parietal lobule (D)

Damage to the dominant (left) side causes:

Gerstmann Syndrome - agraphia, acalculia, R/L confusion, & finger agnosia
Aphasia and Acalculia

14

Inferior Parietal lobule (ND)

Damage to the non-dominant (right) side causes:

Anosognosia - disease denial
R/L discrimination - spatial neglect of
More serious in ND lesion
Impaired expression and processing of emotions, sarcasm, humor, and idioms

15

Superior Parietal lobule Bilateral Syndrome

Lateralization doesn't affect this part

Damage here causes:

Cortical sensory integration
Astereognosis
Agraphesthesia
Stimulus oritentation

Orientation/Space/Location
Reading maps/identifying landmarks
Constructional Apraxia

16

Temporal Syndrome - Hearing Impairments (bilateral)

Lesion needs to be bilateral

17

Temporal Syndrome - Central Processing Deficits

Affects language processing, often in people with LDs, specifically auditory learning

18

Temporal Syndrome - Verbal Memory

Left medial temporal lesions
Verbal memory is always in the left (dominant) hippocampal gyrus and parahippocampal

19

Temporal Syndrome - Nonverbal Memory

Right medial temporal lesions
Music goes to the right side

20

Aphasia

Occurs if lesion is on the left side

Paragrammatism (same as Wernicke's)
Word Deafness (bilateral temporal damage)

21

Temporal Syndrome - Bilateral Medial Lesions

Loss of new learning and recent memory

Anosmia - pyriform dysfunctions

22

Anosmia

Inability to smell

23

Temporal Syndrome - Delerium

TEMPORARY and reversible confusion due to anoxia

24

Occipital Lobe Syndromes - Visual Agnosia

Visual agnosia - impairment in recognition of visually presented objects

25

Occipital Lobe Syndromes - Simultanagnosia

Combining a bunch of visual stimuli
ex. cheeks, lips, hair, eyes = face

26

Occipital Lobe Syndromes - Prosopagnosia

Can't recognize people you should (family)

Dominant temporal-occipital lobe - facial recognition brings in emotion = limbic system

27

Occipital Lobe Syndromes - Color Agnosia

Dominant temporal-occipital lobe

Visual hallucinations

28

Occipital Lobe Syndromes - Alexia without Agraphia

Person can't read, but can write

29

Wernicke/Geschwind/Goodglass Model

A model based on Associative-connective model that says all association areas are connected to the network of fibers. Non-limbic association dependence.

4 Areas of the Brain

Angular Gyrus = Converts graphemes to phonological representations

Wernicke's Area = Signal initiation in arcuate fasciculus

Broca's Area = Appropriate atric program activation

Arcuate Fasciculus = Connects B's and W's

30

Wernicke/Geschwind/Goodglass Model - Rating

8 speech/language features :

1. Articulatory agility
2. Phrase length
3. Grammatical forms
4. Melodic line-prosody
5. Word finding relative to fluency
6. Paraphasia in running speech
7. Sentence repetition
8. Auditory Comprehension

31

Wernicke/Geschwind/Goodglass Model - Neurolinguistic Explanations

Spontaneous Speech
Repetition
Comprehension of Speech
Comprehension of Printed Material
Gestural Response

32

Wernicke/Geschwind/Goodglass Model - Spontaneous Speech

Idea generation and linguistic formulation

Lexical selection: midtemporal/parietal lobe

Coded sentences (phonology/semantics/grammar) projection to premotor cortex - Broca's area

Coding into movement sequence - Broca's area changes all these codes into movement sequences

Movement sequences pattern to corticonuclear fibers for activating articulators

Regulated by cranial nerves

33

Wernicke/Geschwind/Goodglass Model - Repetition

Arcuate fasciculus circuitry function

Perception and discrimination of stimuli in the primary auditory cortex

Coded message projection to W's area for meaning extraction

Coded message to B's area

Transcoding in motor movements

34

Wernicke/Geschwind/Goodglass Model - Comprehension of Speech

Occurs in the Primary Auditory Cortex

Wernicke's area - Associative language cortex

Inferior parietal lobe - integration of prior knowledge

35

Wernicke/Geschwind/Goodglass Model - Comprehension of Printed Material

Starts in the Visual cortex

Visual association cortex

Mid temporal and occipitotemporal area - meaning extraction and object recognition

Angular Gyrus - cross modality integration of auditor image for reading aloud

36

Wernicke/Geschwind/Goodglass Model - Gestural Response

Neural commands from W's and B's areas to premotor cortex for hand

Premotor to the motor cortex - dominant and non-dominant - Use left PM cortex and send that info down to your extremities

Projections from the spinal cord

37

Temporal syndrome

Bilateral hearing
Central processing deficits
Verbal memory
Nonverbal memory
Aphasia (left lesion)
Loss of new learning & anosmia (bilateral medial lesion)
Delirium

38

Agraphesthesia

Disorientation to sensation on skin (can't identify a letter drawn on the skin)

39

Adynamia

Loss of strength or vigor
Associated with transcortical motor aphasia