Session 1 - Anatomy of the CNS Flashcards Preview

Semester 5 - CNS > Session 1 - Anatomy of the CNS > Flashcards

Flashcards in Session 1 - Anatomy of the CNS Deck (45):
1

Give three differences between the CNS and PNS

CNS - Covered in meninge
PNS - Covered in Endoneurium, Perineurium & Epineurium
CNS - Complex
PNS - Limited in Function
CNS - Adaptable/Intelligent PNS - Dependent on CNS

2

What is the central nervous system divided into?

The brain and the spinal cord

3

Where does the anatomical border between the PNS and CNS lie?

At the Pia Mater

4

What two main sections is the PNS divided into?

Afferent and efferent sections

5

What does the efferent PNS divide further into?

The somatic and autonomic nervous system

6

Give three classes of neurones

Afferent neurones
Efferent neurones
Interneurones

7

Where do afferent neurones arise from?

A sense organ, with axons divergin in the CNS to come into contact with many other neurones

8

Where do efferent neurones arise from?

A cell body located within the CNS, upon which many other nerve cells converge

9

What are interneurones?

Make up 99% of the CNS and integrate input with output.

10

What are the two many parts of the CNS?

Neurones and Neuroglia

11

Give four differences between neurones and neuroglia

• General functions
• Ion channel expression
• Diseases that a) target them and b) they give rise
• Diversity of connections

12

Give four examples of neuroglia

Astrocytes
Oligodendrocytes
Ependymal cells
Microglial cells

13

Give threelimitations of the calvaria

• Limited volume/capacity
• No space for storage of energy reserves
• Meninges allow tracking of infection

14

Outline the layers of the meninges, including potential spaces

• Inner layer of Cranium
• Extradural Space
• Dura Mater (2 layers, periosteal layer and meningeal layer)
• Subdural space
• Arachnoid Mater
• Subarachnoind Space
• Pia Mater
• Brain Tissue

15

What are found in the subaracnoid space?

(place in which blood vessels are found, cushioned by CSF, and a site for intracranial bleeds)

16

What are the three main functions of CSF?

• Cushions the brain
• Maintains supply of metabolic substrate
• Dissolves and carries away products of metabolism from brain

17

Why is a stroke in the right brain worse than a stroke in the left?

Stroke in the right brain could effect the part of the parietal cortex responsible for the attention system

18

What is the "front" of the brain called anatomically?

Rostral

19

What are the three main anatomical features of the brain?

Gyri (folds), sulci (grooves) and fissures (clefts)

20

Give the five main parts brain can be divided up into

Cerebral hemispheres
Thalamic masses
Brainstem
Cerebellum
Cavities

21

What are the cerebral hemispheres separated by?

Longitudinal fissure and falx cerebri

22

How are the cerebral hemispheres connected?

By the corpus callosum and commissures

23

What are commissures?

Fibre tracts which span the longitudinal fissure

24

What does the frontal lobe contain?

Broca's area, which is important for speech

25

What does the parietal lobe contain?

Wernicke's area, important for comprehension of spoken language

26

What does the temporal lobe contain?

Area for perception of auditory signals

27

What is the role of the thalamus?

It is responsible for relaying and integrating information to different regions of the cerebral cortex from a variety of structures associated with sensory, motor, autonomic, and emotional processes.

28

What does the hypothalamus moderate?

temperature, endocrine functions, feeding, drinking, emotional states, and sexual behaviour

29

What is the role of the cerebellum?

integration, regulation, and co-ordination of motor processes

30

What are the three parts of the brain stem?

Midbrain
Pons
Medulla Oblongata

31

What does the midbrain do?

relays information for vision and hearing

32

What does the pons do?

It contains tracts passing through it as well as numerous nuclei for functioning in sleep, respiration, bladder control, and many others.

33

What does the medulla oblongata control?

autonomic function (such as respiration, cardiac centre and baroreceptors, and vomiting, coughing, sneezing, and swallowing centres) and connects the higher levels of the brain to the spinal cord.

34

What cranial nerves originate at midbrain?

→ CN III and IV form at the level of the midbrain

35

What cranial nerves originate at Pons?

→ CN V, VI, and VII form at the level of the pons

36

What cranial nerves originate at medulla?

→ CN VIII, IX, X, and XII form at the level of the medulla

37

What does the basal ganglia do?

• Basal Ganglia play an important role in the regulation and integration of motor functions, and are discussed in more detail later.

38

Where does the spinal cord extend to and from?

Foramen magnum -> L2

39

How long is the spinal cord?

42-45cm

40

Where are the two enlargements of the spinal cord?

Cervical enlargement at C4-T1 (Brachial plexus)
Sacral enlargement from T11-S1 (Lumbar and sacral plexus).

41

How does the conus medullaris move during development?

the tip of the conus medullaris is at L4-L5 level and gradually ascends until it lies at L2 level in adults

42

What are the group of nerve roots running in the lumbar cistern known as?

cauda equina

43

What is the filum terminlae?

a remnant of the caudal part of the spinal cord of the embryo and descends amongst the cauda equina

44

What is cauda equina syndrome?

results from dysfunction to the lumbar and sacral nerve roots in the lumbar vertebral canal, affecting the cauda equina. Cauda equina syndrome presents with dysfunction of the bladder, bowel, or sexual function, and sensory changes in saddle or perianal area, as well as potential back pain (with or without sciatic-type pain), sensory changes or numbness in the lower limbs, lower limb weakness, reduction or loss of reflexes in the lower limbs , or unilateral or bilateral symptoms.

45

What is a common cause of cauda equina?

caused by large central IV disc herniation at L4/5 or L5/S1 level, it can also be caused by tumours, direct trauma, spinal stenosis, or inflammatory disease. It is a medical emergency as if left untreated, patients can be left incontinent, affects motor function, and many other possible complications. Treatment is treating the underlying cause.