Session 12 - Lung Cancer Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Session 12 - Lung Cancer Deck (15)
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1

What is the biggest risk factor for lung cancer?

Smoking

2

Other than smoking, what are the risk factors for lung cancer?

Asbestos
Radon
Other occupational carcinogens (chromium, nickel, arsenic)
Genetic factors

3

What symptoms of lung cancer are caused by the primary tumour?

Cough
Dyspnoea
Wheezing
Haemoptysis
Lung infection
Chest/shoulder pain
Weight loss
Lethargy/malaise

PATIENT MAY HAVE NO SYMPTOMS

4

What symptoms may be caused by regional metastases of lung cancer.

Bloated face (SVC obstruction)
Hoarseness (left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy)
Dyspnoea (anaemia, pleural or pericardial effusions)
Dysphagia (oesophageal compression)
Chest pain (parietal pleural involvement)

5

What are the signs of lung cancer?

Finger clubbing
Superior vena cava obstruction
Cachexia
Pale conjunctiva
Cervical lymphadenopathy
Horner’s syndrome
Consolidation
Signs of pleural effusion
Muffled heart sounds
Liver enlargement
Skin metastases
Neurological long tract signs
NO SIGNS

6

What is Horner’s syndrome?

Interruption of sympathetic nerve supply to to eye, characterised by the classic triad of:
- miosis (constricted pupil)
- partial ptosis
- facial anhydrosis
Caused by tumours (Pancoast) or infection of the lung apex. Affects one side of the face.

7

What is a paraneoplastic syndrome?

A paraneoplastic syndrome is a syndrome that is the consequence of cancer in the body, but unlike mass effect is not due to the local presence of cancer cells.

8

What endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes can occur in lung cancer?

Hypercalcaemia
Cushing’s syndrome
Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH)

9

What neurological paraneoplastic syndromes can occur in lung cancer?

Encephalopathy
Peripheral neuropathy
Eaton-Lambert syndrome
Pancoast syndrome

10

What haematological paraneoplastic syndromes can occur in lung cancer?

Anaemia
Thrombocytosis

11

Where does lung cancer commonly spread to?

Draining lymph nodes
Other parts of the lung
Pleura
Pericardium
Liver
Adrenals
Brain
Bone

12

What are the main types of lung cancer?

Non-small cell carcinoma:
- squamous cell carcinoma (~40%)
- adenocarcinoma (~35%)
- large cell carcinoma (~5%)

Small cell carcinoma (~12%)

Rare tumours (e.g. carcinoid) (~5%)

13

Surgery is most commonly used for which type of lung cancer?

Non-small cell carcinomas

14

What is the cause of hoarseness of voice in lung cancer?

Impingement of left recurrent laryngeal nerve

15

Does small cell carcinoma or non-small cell carcinoma proliferate and spread at a faster rate?

Small cell carcinoma grows and metastasises faster