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1

Under what conditions did the NASW emerge in 1955? And what were some of its early challenges?

-gradual transformation from narrow to broad view
-accelerated during 60's-70's due to social unrest in US
-accusations of being irrelevant
-social workers engaged in narrow focused activities (did not address need of the people)

2

How do these terms differ?
Clinical Practice
Direct Practice
Specialization

Limited to mental health treatment
Encompasses a variety of social work roles

Involves specialized training in a modality of treatment, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, trauma-informed therapy, psychodynamic therapy

3

What does Abromovitz say about the micro/macro distinction?

-Undo the false distinction between micro and macro and the division of labor
-This split obscures the reality that all social work methods involve or have the potential to promote rather than constrained change, be it with individuals, groups, or the wider society,

4

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

-Five stage model (physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization)
-people are motivated to achieve certain needs (deficiency needs and growth needs)
-motivated to achieve self-actualization but only if other basic needs are met first

5

Roles of direct practitioners

Direct provision of services
Individual casework or counseling
Martial and family therapy
Group work services
Educator/disseminator of information

6

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

-Five stage model (physiological, safety, love/belonging, esteem, self actualization)
-states that people are motivated to achieve certain needs (deficiency needs and growth needs)
-motivated to achieve self-actualization but only if other needs are met first

7

Mezzo-level practice

Community organizing
Community programming

8

Mezzo-level practice

Community organizing
Community programming

9

Macro-level practice

Organization and management
Social planning
Political advocacy

10

What does Abromovitz say about the micro/macro distinction?

-Undo the false distinction between micro/macro and this division of labor
-This split obscures the reality that all social work methods involve or have the potential to promote rather than constrain change, be it with individuals, groups or with the wider society

11

Ecological systems theory

A system is a set of ordered elements making up a whole
When one part of the system changes so do the others (i.e., homeostasis)
Individuals constantly engage in transactions with other humans and wider systems in their environments
Individuals and systems “reciprocally” influence each other
Adequate assessments must consider how people and environmental systems influence each other

12

Why does Saleeby (1996) argue that a strengths-based perspective is needed?

-denies that all people who face trauma and pain in their lives are inevitably wounded or incapacitated or become less than they might
-correct the destructive emphasis on what is 'wrong'
-focus on what is right
-victimhood has become big business
-wrong to deny the possible as it is to deny the problem

13

What are the elements of a strengths-based practice?

-different way of looking at individuals, families, and communities
-all must be seen in light of their capacities, possibilities, visions, values, and hopes, however dashed and distorted these may have become through circumstance, oppression, and trauma

14

What does the strengths-based perspective say about factors such as trauma history, disability, and addictions?

-they are real
-shouldn't define the client
-can be used as tools for empowerment
-power of the self to heal
-denies people are victims
-denies the reign of categorical imperative

15

What is a self-righting tendency? Resilience?



Resilience means the skills, abilities, knowledge and insight to surmount adversity and meet challenges.

16

What are some criticisms of this perspective?

positive thinking in disguise
- quick fixes
- not true, takes hard work and effort

re-framing misery
-clients are expected to do the work of transformation
-only re-conceptualize their difficulties
- honors the reality of conditions, trauma, violence and demands reframing to develop an attitude beyond labels

pollyannaism
-ignores how manipulative, destructive and dangerous some clients can be
-social workers can't automatically discount people
-not make assumptions
-some are beyond redemption?

ignoring reality
- ignores, downplays real problems
-make sure the diagnoses does not become the cornerstone of identity
-not deny the verdict, defy the sentence

17

Evidence-based practice

Comes from the medical model
Relies on controlled clinical trial research
Emphasizes targeted problems and interventions

18

Evidence-based process

Requires practitioner to survey knowledge base and weigh alternatives
A method of acquiring information
Always changing with new developments and findings

19

Challenges to EBPs

Practitioners are not always free to choose interventions
Social policies and agencies may pre-determine interventions
Practitioners operate under time constraints
Clients may have multiple, co-occurring problems that do not fit control groups
Practitioners may over-generalize domain expertise to groups where effectiveness isn’t proven

20

Using Trevithick (2008), identify three countervailing arguments in defense of social work.

- requires specific knowledge base
- theory, fact, action knowledge
-