Session 2: Vertebral Column and Spinal Cord Flashcards Preview

Y2 LCRS 2 - HNS Anatomy - Laz > Session 2: Vertebral Column and Spinal Cord > Flashcards

Flashcards in Session 2: Vertebral Column and Spinal Cord Deck (56)
Loading flashcards...

Which part is the lamina of the vertebra?

Between the spinous process and the transverse process


Which part is the pedicle of the vertebra?

Between the transverse process and the vertebral bod


What name is giving to the joints between the articular facets ofadjacent vertebrae?

Zygapophysial joints


Describe some distinctive features of cervical vertebrae.

Triangular vertebral foramen
Short, square vertebral body
Transverse foramina in the transverse processes
Bifid spine (except C1 and C7)
Atlas and axis (C1 and C2) are specialized for movement


Describe some distinctive features of thoracic vertebrae.

Bigger than cervical vertebrae
Circular vertebral foramen
Heart shaped vertebral body
Spinous process pointing sharply downwards
Transverse costal facets (for rib articulation)


Describe some distinctive features of lumbar vertebrae.

Articular facets are angled to limit movement
Thin, long transverse processes (except L5)
Triangular vertebral foramen
Cylindrical vertebral body


How many bones fuse to form the sacrum?



Describe the structure of the sacrum.

Concave anterior surface
Triangular in shape
L shaped articular facets (for articulation with pelvic bones)


How many bones fuse to form the coccyx?

Vertebral arches and canal are absent


What two types of joint are found between vertebrae?

Symphyses – between adjacent vertebral bodies
Synovial Joints – between articular processes


How many joints are there between two typical vertebrae?

2 symphyses (above and below)
4 synovial joints (2 superior and 2 inferior)


Between which vertebrae do you find intervertebral discs?

There is no intervertebral disc between C1 and C2 (you instead get atlanto-axial joint capsules)


What are the two parts of the intervertebral disc?

Nucleus pulposus
Annulus fibrosus


Describe how problems with the intervertebral disc can lead to potential clinical problems.

Degenerative changes in the annulus fibrosus can lead to herniation of the nucleus pulposus, which can then impinge on spinal nerves or thespinal cord


Name the two ligaments that rung along the length of the vertebral bodies from the skull to the sacrum.

Anterior and Posterior Longitudinal Ligaments


Which ligament is typically damaged in whiplash?

Anterior Longitudinal Ligament


What is the name given to the upper art of the posterior longitudinal ligament going from C2 to the skull?

Tectorial Membrane


Which ligament is pierced in lumbar puncture and where is it positioned relative to the vertebral bodies?

Ligamentum flavum – found between the laminae of adjacent vertebrae


Name the triangular sheet-like structure found in the upper vertebral column. Where is it attached?

Ligamentum nuchae – attached from C7 to the occipital bone


What it continuous with the ligamentum nuchae and which part of the vertebrae is this attached to?

Supraspinous ligament
It is connects to the spinous processes from C7 to the sacrum


Which ligament lies between adjacent spinous processes?

Interspinous ligament


What are the three categories of muscles in the back and which muscles fall into each of these categories?

 Trapezius
 Latissimus dorsi
 Levator scapulae
 Rhomboid minor
 Rhomboid major
 Serratus posterior superior
 Serratus posterior inferior
 Spinotransversales
 Erector spinae
 Transversospinales
 Interspinales
 Intertransversarii


State the origin, insertion and function of:
a. Trapezius
b. Latissimus Dorsi
c. Levator Scapulae
d. Rhomboid Minor
e. Rhomboid Major

a. Trapezius
Origin – external occipital protuberance, cervical and thoracic spine
Insertion – clavicle and scapula
Function – elevate and rotate the scapula when the humerus is abducted
b. Latissimus Dorsi
Origin – T7 to sacrum + thoracolumbar fasica + posterior 1/3 of iliac crest
Insertion – intertubercular sulcus of the humerus
Function – extends, adducts and medially rotates the humerus
c. Levator Scapulae
Origin – transverse processes of C1-C4
Insertion – upper medial scapula
Function – elevates the scapula
d. Rhomboid Minor
Origin – spinous processes of C7-T1
Insertion – medial border of scapula
Function – adduct and elevate scapula
e. Rhomboid Major
Origin – spinous processes of T2-T5
Insertion – medial border of scapula
Function – adduct and elevate scapula


State the origin, insertion and function of:
a. Serratus Posterior Superior
b. Serratus Posterior Inferior

a. Serratus Posterior Superior
Origin –C7-T3
Insertion – upper border of ribs 2-5
Function – elevates ribs 2-5
b. Serratus Posterior Inferior
Origin – T11-L3
Insertion – lateral inferior margins of ribs 9-12
Function – depresses ribs 9-12 and prevents lower limbs from elevating when the diaphragm contracts


State the location and function of:
a. Spinotransversales
b. Erector Spinae and Transversospinales
c. Interspinales and Intertransversarii

a. Spinotransversales
Extensors and rotators of the head and neck
The two spinotransversales muscles run from the spinous processes up to T6 and ligamentum nuchae, running superiorly and laterally
b. Erector Spinae and Transversospinales
Extensors and rotators of the vertebral column
Erector spinae lie posterolaterally to the vertebral column between the spinous processes medially and the angles of the ribs laterally
Transversospinales run obliquely upward and medially from the transverse process to the spinous process
c. Interspinales and Intertransversarii
These are short segmental muscles that are the stabilisers of the vertebral column
Interspinales – pass between adjacent spinous processes
Intertransversarii – pass between adjacent transverse processes


Describe the flexibility of the cervical spine in terms of flexion/extension, lateral flexion and rotation.

Cervical spine can comfortably flex, extend, laterally flex and rotate.
The articular surfaces between vertebrae are almost horizontal, so all these movement are possible.
Also the neck has less surrounding tissue than other parts of the spine


Describe the flexibility of the upper thoracic spine (T1-T6).

NO flexion/extension
Some lateral flexion
Some rotation
The articular surfaces are almost vertical, which doesn’t allow for flexion/extension.


Describe the flexibility of the lower thoracic spine (T7-T12).

Some flexion/extension
Good lateral flexion
Good rotation


Describe the flexibility of the lumbar spine (L1-sacrum).

NO rotation
Good flexion/extension
Good lateral flexion
Their articular surfaces are curled around the articular surfaces of the adjacent superior vertebrae, ensuring no rotation.


Describe the shape of the atlas (C1).

It has NO vertebral body
It consists of two lateral masses with an anterior and posterior arch