Flashcards in Session 6: Anatomy of the Orbit Deck (36)
Which bones make up the roof, floor and lateral wall of the orbit?
Roof – orbital plate of frontal bone
Floor – orbital plate of maxillary bone
Lateral wall – greater wing of the sphenoid bone + zygomatic bone
Which bones make up the medial wall of the orbit?
Orbital plate of ethmoid
Frontal process of maxilla
Lesser wing of sphenoid
Which structures pass through the optic canal?
Which structures pass through the inferior orbital fissure?
Zygomatic branch of the maxillary division (V2) of trigeminal nerve
Which structures pass through the superior orbital fissure?
Ophthalmic division (V1) of trigeminal
Ophthalmic veins (superior and inferior)
Name the 4 recti muscles and state their origin and insertion.
Superior Rectus, Inferior Rectus, Lateral Rectus, Medial Rectus
Origin: common tendinous ring at the back of the eye
Insertion: 5 mm behind the corneal margin (onto the sclera)
State the innervation of the 6 extrinsic eye muscles?
Lateral Rectus = Abducens (CN 6)
Superior Oblique = Trochlear (CN 4)
Medial Rectus, Superior Rectus, Inferior Rectus,
Inferior Oblique = Oculomotor (CN 3)
State the origin and insertion of the inferior oblique.
Origin: orbital surface of maxilla
Insertion: postero-lateral inferior quadrant of the globe
State the origin and insertion of the superior oblique.
Origin: body of sphenoid
Insertion: via the trochlea to the postero-lateral superior quadrant of the globe
Which muscle is responsible for elevating the eyelid?
Levator palpebrae superioris
Where is the origin and insertion of this muscle?
Origin: lesser wing of sphenoid
Insertion: superior tarsal plate and skin of the eyelid
Describe the innervation of this muscle.
Oculomotor and sympathetic to smooth muscle
Describe the isolated muscle action of the oblique muscles.
Superior oblique = depresses AND abducts
Inferior oblique = elevates AND abducts
Describe the isolated muscle action of the superior and inferior recti.
Superior rectus = elevates AND adducts
Inferior rectus = depresses AND adducts
Describe how you would test the muscle actions of superior rectus and inferior rectus.
Superior rectus = make the patient abduct their eye and then elevate it
Inferior rectus = make the patient abduct their eye and then depress it
Describe how you would test the muscle actions of superior oblique and inferior oblique.
Superior oblique = make the patient adduct their eye and then depress it
Inferior oblique = make the patient adduct their eye and then elevate it
Which nerve axons make up the optic nerve?
Retinal ganglion cell axons
What types of fibres are found within the oculomotor nerve?
Motor fibres to MR, SR, IR, IO and LPS
The oculomotor nerve has two rami
What are the branches of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve? Which branch is biggest?
Frontal – this is the largest
What structure do the cranial nerves pass through before reaching the superior orbital fissure?
Which of the nerves passing through the cavernous sinus, passesthrough the middle of it rather than passing through the walls?
Abducens (CN 6)
What are the branches of the branches of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve?
Lacrimal – no branches
Branch to ciliary ganglion
What limb of the autonomic nervous system is the ciliary ganglioninvolved in?
Which fibres enter the ciliary ganglion and which fibres leave the ciliary ganglion?
Fibres entering the ciliary ganglion: preganglionic fibres in the inferior ramus of the oculomotor nerve
Fibres leaving the ciliary ganglion: postganglionic fibres in the short ciliary nerves
What do the fibres leaving the ciliary ganglion innervate?
What are the SIX branches of the ophthalmic artery?
Central artery of the retina
Name the two ophthalmic veins and state where they drain.
Superior ophthalmic vein = cavernous sinus
Inferior ophthalmic vein = pterygoid plexus
Describe the location of the lacrimal glands.
Anterolateral superior orbit
Describe the innervation of the lacrimal glands.
Parasympathetic secretomotor fibres of Facial Nerve (CN 7) from the pterygopalatine ganglion via the zygomaticotemporal and, finally, lacrimal nerves