Flashcards in Session 5: The Airway and its Relations Deck (42)
What type of epithelium lines the conchae?
It increases the surface area for warming and humidifying the inspired air (conchae are also referred to as turbinate bones)
What name is given to the gaps between conchae?
Meati (superior, middle, inferior)
What is the name of the space superior to the superior concha?
Which sinus drains into the sphenoethmoidal recess?
What action does the epiglottis perform to close off the laryngeal inlet?
What is the role of the pharyngotympanic tube (Eustachian tube)?
Equalises the pressure on either side of the tympanic membrane by allowing a connection between the middle ear and the nasopharynx
Where are the ethmoidal cells found?
Medial to the orbit
What is the clinical relevance of the sphenoid sinus in relation to the pituitary gland?
It is penetrated in transphenoidal hypophysectomy
Where do the posterior ethmoidal air cells drain?
Lateral wall of the superior meatus
What significant structure is found inferior to the middle nasal concha?
Where does the sphenoidal sinus drain?
Into the sphenoethmoidal recess
What are the three parts of the ethmoidal air cells and where do each of them drain?
Anterior, middle and posterior ethmoidal air cells
Posterior – lateral wall of superior meatus
Middle – ethmoidal bulla
Anterior – top of the semilunar hiatus via the frontonasal duct with the drainage of the frontal sinus
Where does the maxillary sinus drain?
To the bottom of the semilunar hiatus
Where does the nasolacrimal duct drain and what is its role?
To the lateral wall of the inferior meatus It drains tears from the lacrimal sac to the nasal cavity
State some roles of the sinuses in the skull.
It makes the skull lighter
Acts as a crumple one for the brain
Increases projection of the voice
What are the mastoid air cells and describe its connection with the middle ear.
They are small sinuses within the mastoid part of the temporal bone
The mastoid air cells communicate with the middle ear via the aditus ad antrum and the mastoid antrum
This is a possible route for infection of the middle ear
What is the name given to the thin plate of bone that forms the roof of the tympanic cavity?
Through which membrane is a cricothyroidotomy performed?
What important cartilage is found attached to the top of the cricoid cartilage?
What effect does tilting the thyroid cartilage forwards have on the vocal folds? Which muscles perform this action?
Puts tension on the vocal folds
What are the two parts of the cricoid cartilage?
Lamina and Arch
What two things do the cricoid cartilage articulate with?
Inferior horns of the thyroid cartilage
What name is given to the protrusion between the laminae of the thyroid cartilage and what notches are found above and below this point?
Superior and inferior thyroid notch
What two bits of cartilage are found on top of the arytenoid cartilage?
Corniculate and Cuneiform Cartilage
What are the two folds in the mucosa in the laryngeal inlet and how are they arranged?
Vestibular Fold (false vocal fold)
Vocal Fold (true vocal fold)
Vestibular folds are lateral to the vocal folds
What membranous outpouching is formed between these two folds?
Laryngeal ventricle and laryngeal saccule
What is the name given to the opening between the vocal folds?
Which muscles are attached only to the arytenoids?
Transverse and Oblique Arytenoid muscles
Which muscles are involved in abducting and adducting the vocal folds?
Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle – abduction
Lateral cricoarytenoid muscle – adduction