Session 5: The Airway and its Relations Flashcards Preview

Y2 LCRS 2 - HNS Anatomy - Laz > Session 5: The Airway and its Relations > Flashcards

Flashcards in Session 5: The Airway and its Relations Deck (42)
Loading flashcards...

What type of epithelium lines the conchae?

Respiratory Epithelium
It increases the surface area for warming and humidifying the inspired air (conchae are also referred to as turbinate bones)


What name is given to the gaps between conchae?

Meati (superior, middle, inferior)


What is the name of the space superior to the superior concha?

Sphenoethmoidal Recess


Which sinus drains into the sphenoethmoidal recess?

Sphenoidal Sinus


What action does the epiglottis perform to close off the laryngeal inlet?



What is the role of the pharyngotympanic tube (Eustachian tube)?

Equalises the pressure on either side of the tympanic membrane by allowing a connection between the middle ear and the nasopharynx


Where are the ethmoidal cells found?

Medial to the orbit


What is the clinical relevance of the sphenoid sinus in relation to the pituitary gland?

It is penetrated in transphenoidal hypophysectomy


Where do the posterior ethmoidal air cells drain?

Lateral wall of the superior meatus


What significant structure is found inferior to the middle nasal concha?

Semilunar Hiatus


Where does the sphenoidal sinus drain?

Into the sphenoethmoidal recess


What are the three parts of the ethmoidal air cells and where do each of them drain?

Anterior, middle and posterior ethmoidal air cells
Posterior – lateral wall of superior meatus
Middle – ethmoidal bulla
Anterior – top of the semilunar hiatus via the frontonasal duct with the drainage of the frontal sinus


Where does the maxillary sinus drain?

To the bottom of the semilunar hiatus


Where does the nasolacrimal duct drain and what is its role?

To the lateral wall of the inferior meatus It drains tears from the lacrimal sac to the nasal cavity


State some roles of the sinuses in the skull.

It makes the skull lighter
Acts as a crumple one for the brain
Increases projection of the voice


What are the mastoid air cells and describe its connection with the middle ear.

They are small sinuses within the mastoid part of the temporal bone
The mastoid air cells communicate with the middle ear via the aditus ad antrum and the mastoid antrum
This is a possible route for infection of the middle ear


What is the name given to the thin plate of bone that forms the roof of the tympanic cavity?

Tegmen tympani


Through which membrane is a cricothyroidotomy performed?

Cricothyroid ligament


What important cartilage is found attached to the top of the cricoid cartilage?

Arytenoid cartilage


What effect does tilting the thyroid cartilage forwards have on the vocal folds? Which muscles perform this action?

Puts tension on the vocal folds
Cricothyroid muscles


What are the two parts of the cricoid cartilage?

Lamina and Arch


What two things do the cricoid cartilage articulate with?

Arytenoid cartilage
Inferior horns of the thyroid cartilage


What name is given to the protrusion between the laminae of the thyroid cartilage and what notches are found above and below this point?

Laryngeal prominence
Superior and inferior thyroid notch


What two bits of cartilage are found on top of the arytenoid cartilage?

Corniculate and Cuneiform Cartilage


What are the two folds in the mucosa in the laryngeal inlet and how are they arranged?

Vestibular Fold (false vocal fold)
Vocal Fold (true vocal fold)
Vestibular folds are lateral to the vocal folds


What membranous outpouching is formed between these two folds?

Laryngeal ventricle and laryngeal saccule


What is the name given to the opening between the vocal folds?

Rima glottidis


Which muscles are attached only to the arytenoids?

Transverse and Oblique Arytenoid muscles


Which muscles are involved in abducting and adducting the vocal folds?

Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle – abduction
Lateral cricoarytenoid muscle – adduction


Which nerve provides sensory and motor control of the larynx?

Vagus Nerve