Session 3 - Abdominal wall and the mesenteries Flashcards Preview

Semester 3 - Gastrointestinal > Session 3 - Abdominal wall and the mesenteries > Flashcards

Flashcards in Session 3 - Abdominal wall and the mesenteries Deck (46):
1

What are the three borders of the abdominal wall?

• Anterior
• Lateral (Together with anterior sometimes known as anterolateral)
• Posterior

2

What is the anterolateral abdominal wall bound by superiorly and inferiorly?

• Superiorly by the cartilages of the 7th-10th ribs and xiphoid process of the sternum
• Inferiorly by the inguinal ligament and the superior margins of the anterolateral aspects of the pelvic girdle

3

What does the anterolateral abdominal wall consist of (in order)

• Skin
• Subcutaneous tissue
• Muscle and their aponeurosis
• Deep fascia
• Extraperitoneal fate
• Parietal peritoneum

4

Where are the bony attachment points of the ribs?

• Ribs
• Spine
• Illiac crest

5

What is needed in the midline of the abdomen for muscles to contract against?

• Linae albase

6

What are the three layers of muscles of the abdominal wall?

• External obliques (Attached to ribs)
• Internal obliques (attached to illiac crest)
• Transversalis abdominus (Attached to lumbar verterbra)

7

What exists below the three layers of muscle?

• The transveralis fascia

8

What is the purpose of the greater omentum?

• Walls off areas of infection

9

What is the arcuate line?

• The point at which the posterior rectus abdominal sheath stops at a point 1/3rd from the umbilicus to the symphysis pubis

10

What is divarication of recti?

• Due to laxity of linea alba

11

Why does bleeding occur in rectus abdominus muscle?

• Due to warfarin use and in which haemorrhage

12

What is Cullen's sign?

• Sign of pancreatitis

Haemorrhage into rectus abdominu

13

What is the umbilicus?

Embryological remenant found at spinal level L3

14

What is the epigastric fossa?

• Slight depression in the epigastric region, just inferior to the xiphoid process
• Noticeable when a person is in the supine position because the abdominal organs spread out

15

What is commonly felt at epigastric fossa?

• Heartburn

16

What is the linea alba?

• Aponeuroses of abdominal muscles, separating the left and right rectus abdominis

17

What happens if one has a lax linea alba?

• Muscles spread apart

Called divarication of recti

18

What is the pubic crest and symphisis?

• Upper margins of the pubic bones and the cartilaginous joints that unite them. Can be felt at the inferior end of the linea alba.

19

What is the inguinal groove?

• Skin crease that is parallel and just inferior to the inguinal ligament (runs between ASIS and pubic tubercle). Marks the division between the abdominal wall and the thigh.

20

What are the semilunar lines?

• Slight curves tendinous lines on either side of the rectus abdominis

21

What are the tendinous intersections of rectus abdominis?

• Tendinous lines running horizontally across rectus abdominis

22

What is the arcuate line?

• Where the fibrous sheath of the rectus abdominous stops 1/3 of the way from the umbilicus to the pubic crest

23

What is McBurney's point?

• 2/3rds of the distance between the umbillicus and anterior superior illiac spine
• Appendicectomy
• Use a gridiron incision

24

How many muscles are present in the abdominal wall?

• 5

25

Name the three flat muscles of the abdominal wall

• External oblique
• Internal oblique
• Transversus abdominis

26

Name the two vertical muscles of the abdominal wall

• Rectus abdominis and pyramidalis

27

In what direction do the oblique flat muscle run?

• Diagonally and perpendicular to each other

28

In which direction do the fibres of transversus abdominus run?

• Transversely

29

What is the origin of external oblique

• External surfaces of the 5th to 12th ribs

30

What is the insertion of external oblique

• Linea alba
• Pubic tubercle
• Anterior half of iliac crest

31

What is the origin of the internal oblique?

• Thoracolumbar fascia
• Anterior two thirds of iliac crest
• Connective tissue deep to lateral third of inguinal ligament

32

What is the insertion of the internal oblique?

• Inferior borders of the 10th to 12th ribs
• Linea alba
• Pectin pubis

33

What is the origin of the transversus abdominis?

• Internal surfaces of 7th to 12th costal cartilages
• Thoracolumbar fascia
• Iliac crest

34

What is the insertion of the transversus abdominis?

• Linea alba with aponeuroses of internal oblique

35

What is the rectus sheath?

• Tendinous sheath which encloses the rectus abdominus (vertical muscle, forms the abs!)
• Formed from the strong, sheet like aponeuroses of the three flat musclees

36

Where does the linea alba extend to and from?

• Xiphoid process to the pubic symphysis

37

What are the two muscles found in the rectus sheath?

• Rectus abdominis

38

Does the rectus sheath completely extend all the way to the pubic symphsis?

• Posterior rectus sheath disappears at arcuate line
• 1/3 way from ubilicus to pubic crest

39

What is the linea semilunaris?

• Curved tendinous line places on either side of the rectus abdominus

40

What are the tendinous horizontal lines breaking up the rectus abdominis called?

• Tendinous intersections

41

What occurs if muscle is used as a sutural locaiton?

• Eventual incisional hernia through weakness in wall

42

Name four different abdominal inscisions

• Midline incision
• Transverse incsision
• Appendicectomy
• Gridiron incision

43

What is a midline incision?

• Surgeons suture the linea alba together to provide strong closure

44

What is a transverse incision?

• surgeons suture the external oblique aponeuroses

45

Where is an appendicectomy incision placed?

• McBurney's point
• 2/3rds of the distance between the umbilicus and ASIS

Through a gridiron muscle splitting incision

46

What is gridiron incision?

• Put scissors in and open and close them to separate out the muscle fibres, followed by the next two layers.
• This is in order to separate out the fibres of the external and internal obliques and the transversalis