Session 3 - The mesenteries Flashcards Preview

Semester 3 - Gastrointestinal > Session 3 - The mesenteries > Flashcards

Flashcards in Session 3 - The mesenteries Deck (91):
1

What is the vitelline duct?

• A duct which leads to yolk sac
• Persistence leads to a number of different abnormalities

2

What is a patent vitellintestinal duct?

• Joins small intestine to umbillicus

3

What is a vitelline cyst?

• Vitelline duct forms fibrous strands at either end

4

What is a vitelline fistual?

• Direct communication between the umbilicus and the intestinal tract

Faecal matter comes out of umbilicus

5

What is the allantois?

• Placental exchange barrier

6

What occurs in a patent urachus?

Joins bladder to umbilicus

7

When can a patent urachus occur?

• Birth or later in life when men develop bladder outflow obstruction due to benign prostatic hypertrophy

8

What is Meckel's diverticulum?

• Most common GI abnormality
• Cul-de-sac in the ileum

9

What is the rule of 2's for Meckel's diverticulum?

• Effects 2% people, 2 feet from the iliocecal valve, 2 inches long, 2 types of tissue - Small bowel epithelium, gastric epithelium (Why?), 2:1 males to females

10

What is gastroichis?

• Failure of closure of the abdominal wall during folding of the embryo, leaving gut tub eand its derivatives outside the body cavity
• Viscera not covered by peritoneum

11

What is an omphalocoele?

• Persistence of physiological herniation
• Part of gut tube fails to return to abdominal cavity following normal herniation into abdominal cord

12

What is somatic referred pain?

• Pain caused by a noxious stimulus to the proximal part of a somatic nerve that is perceived in the distal dermatome of the nerve
• E.g. Shingles - pain felt distally along the nerve

13

What is visceral referred pain?

• In the thorax and abdomen, visceral afferent pain fibers follow sympathetic fibres back to the same spinal cord segments
• CNS perceives visceral (gut) pain as coming from superficial, somatic portions of the body supplied by relevant spinal cord segments

14

Give four factors which cause visceral referred pain

• Ischaemia
• Abnormally strong muscle contraction
• Inflammation
• Stretch

15

Give four usually painful stimuli which do not cause referred pain

• Touch
• Burning
• Cutting
• Crushing

16

Define referred pain

• Pain perceived at a site distant from the site causing the pain

17

What is the vertebral level of the umbilicus?

T10

18

What is the vertebral level of the pelvic brim?

T12

19

Give two causes of referred pain?

• Shingles
• Right lower lobe pneumonia

20

Where can visceral foregut pain refer?

• Epigastric region

21

Where can midgut pain refer?

• Periumbilical region

22

Where can hindgut pain refer?

• Suprapubic region

23

What can damage to retroperitoneal structures cause?

• Central back pain

24

Where does early appendicitic pain localise?

• Umbilicus

25

Why does early appendicitic pain appear in the umbilicus?

• Innervation of appendix enters spine at T10

26

What does pain localise to lower quadrant in late stage appendicitis?

• Appendix becomes more inflamed and irritates surrounding bowel wall, localising the pain the right lower quadrant (irritates somatic nerve)

27

What is the anterior abdominal wall composed of?

• Skin, fasciae and muscle

28

Where does the anterior abdominal wall extend to and from?

• Anterior aspects of the rib cage and pelvic wall

29

What is knowledge of the composition of the abdominal wall used for?

• Surgical procedures

30

How many muscles are there in the antero-lateral abdominal wall?

• 3 flat
• 2 vertical

31

Where do the flat muscles on either side of the abdomen interlace?

• At the linea alba

32

What movements are the muscles of the abdomen useful for?

• Flexing
• Twisting
• Lateral flexion of the trunk

33

Other than movement, give one use of the abdominal muscles?

• Forced expiration during coughing

34

What does the location of a surgical incision depend on? (4)

• Type of surgical incision
• Location of abdominal viscera
• Avoidance of nerves
• Maintenance of blood supply

35

Where does small bower colic localise?

• Midgut, periumbilical

36

Give a cause of supapubic (hindgut pain)

• Large bowel colic

37

What is referred diaphragmatic irritation caused by?

• Ruptured spleen
• Ectopic pregnancy
• Perforated ulcer

38

What happens in referred diaphragmatic irritation?

• Blood pools in pelvis, causing pain
• Patient feels faint so lies down
• Blood rushes to diaphragm (C3/4/5)
• Presence of blood at diaphragm results in referred pain to left shoulder

39

Where is pain not referred to right shoulder in referred diaphragmatic irritation?

• Liver is in the way of blood on the way to the right diaphragm

40

What is contained within the peritoneal cavity?

• Periotneal fluid

41

How does the peritoneal cavity of men and women differ?

• In men peritoneal cavity completely closed
• In females there is a communication pathway to the exterior of the body through the uterine tubes, cavity and vagina.

Constitutes potential infective route

42

What does the parietal peritoneum line?

• The internal surface of the abdominal wall

43

What does the visceral peritoneum line?

• The intestines and gut contents

44

Does the parietal peritoneum touch muscle?

• No
• Separated by extrapertioneal connective tissue

45

What is the extraperitoneal connective tissue attaching the parietal peritoneum to the anterior abdominal wall only lossely bound?

• To allow for changes in size of the bladder and rectum

46

How is the innervation, blood supply and lymphatics of the parietal peritoneum linked to the structures it lines?

• Same as the part of the abdominal wall it lines

47

What is the interior body of the wall sensitive to?

• Pain
• Pressure
• Heat
• Cold

Laceration

48

Where is pain not well localised in the peritoneal cavity?

• Inferior surface of the central part of the diaphragm
• Innervated by phrenic nerve which refers pain to shoulder

49

What is the blood supply, lymphatics and visceral nerve supply of the visceral peritoneum linked to?

• Same as organs it touches

50

What are the two main sensations the visceral peritoneum is sensitive to?

• Stretching
• Chemical irritation

51

What is a mesentery?

• A double layer or peritoneum that occurs as a result of the invagination of the peritoneum by an organ
• Connects an intraperitoneal organ to the body wall

52

What is an omentum?

• A double layered extension or fold of peritoneum that passes from the stomach and proximal parts of the duodenum to adjacent organs in the abdominal cavity

Made up of greater and lesser omentum

53

What is the greater omentum?

• A prominent, four layered peritoneal fold that hangs from the greater curve of the stomach

Adter descending it folds back and attaches to the anterior surface of the transverse colon

54

What is the lesser omentum?

• A small, double layered peritoneal fold that connects the lesser curvature of the stomach and the proximal part of the duodenum to the liver.
• Also connects stomach to portal triad

55

What is a peritoneal ligament?

• A double layer of pertoneum that connects an organ with another organ or the abdominal wall

56

What three things does the liver attach to?

• Anterior abdominal wall
• Stomach
• Duodenum

57

How does the liver attacht he the anterior abdominal wall?

• Falciform ligament

58

What is the peritoneal cavity?

A potential space of capillary thinness between parietal and visceral layers of peritoneum

59

How does the liver attach to the duodenum?

• Hepatoduodenal ligament (the thickened free edge of the lesser omentum, which conducts the portal triad)

60

What four things does the stomach connect to?

• Liver
• Inferior surface of the diaphragm
• Spleen

Transverse Colon

61

How does the liver attach to the stomach?

Hepatogastric ligament

62

How does the stomach attach to the liver?

Hepatogastric ligament

63

How does the stomach connect to the spleen?

• Gasrosplenic ligament

64

How does the stomach attach to the inferior surface of the diaphragm?

Gastrophrenic ligament

65

In what two ways can structures of the peritoneum be classified?

• Intraperitoneal

Retroperitoneal/Extraperitoneal

66

What is an intraperitoneal structure?

• Completely covered by peritoneum, however not completely enclosed in mesentery

67

How does the stomach attach to the transverse colon?

Gastrocolic ligament (greater omentum

68

What are the 9 retroperitoneal organs?

• SAD PUCKER
• Suprarenal glands
• Aorta
• Duodenum
• Pancreas (head, neck and body)
• Ureters
• Colon
• Kidneys
• Esophagus
• Rectum

69

Which organs are secondarily retroperitoneal (As a result of embryological development pushing)

• PADD
• Pancreas
• Ascending Colon
• Descending colon
• Duodenum

70

What planes define the 9 surface regions of the abdominal wall?

• Midclavicular lines vertically
• Subcostal and transtubecular lines horizontally

71

What are the three side regions called?

• Left/Right hypo-chondriac region
• Left/right lumbar region

Left/Right Iliac region

72

What are the three middle parts of the abdominal wall called? (top to bottom)

• Epigastric region
• Umbilical region
• Hypogastric region

73

What divides the abdominal cavity into two compartments?

• The transverse mesocolon (mesentery of the transverse colon)

74

What are the two compartments of the abdominal cavity?

• Supracolic compartment
• Infracolic compartment

75

What is a retroperitoneal organ?

• Outside the peritoneal cavity and are thus only partially covered by parietal peritoneum

76

What is contained in the supracolic compartment?

• Stomach
• Liver
• Spleen

77

What is contained in the infracolic compartment?

• Small intestine
• Ascending and descending colon

78

Where does the infracolic compartment lie?

• Posterior to the greater omentum

79

What is the infracolic compartment divided by?

• The mesenetery of the small intestine
• Into right and left infracolic spaces

80

How is communication between supracolic and infracolic spaces achieved?

• Paracolic gutters

81

What is the greater sac made up of?

• Supracolic and infracolic compartments

82

What is the lesser sac (omental bursa)?

• An extensive cavity that lies posterior to the stomach and the lesser omentum

83

What does the lesser sac allow?

Movement of the stomach

84

How do the greater and lesser sacs communicate?

• Through the omental foramen, an opening situated posterior to the free edge of the lesser omentum

85

What is the right subphrenic space?

• Lies between the diaphragm and the right lobe of the liver
• Common site for collections of fluid after right sided abdominal inflammation

86

What is the left subphrenic space?

• Lies between the diaphragm, left lobe of the liver, the stomach and the superior surface of the spleen
• Enlarged after splenectomy, when it is a common site for fluid collection

87

What is the recto-uterine pouch?

• Periotneum passes from the rectum to the posterior vagina, and then back to the uterine cervix and body.

88

What is the vesico-uterine pouch?

• Peritoneum spreads over the uterus to its anterior surface and as far as the cervic, before reflecting back on itself to meet the upper surface of the bladder

89

What is the recto-vesicle pouch?

• In males, peritoneum leaves junction of middle and lower thirds of the rectum, passng forwards to upper poles of the seminal vesicles and superior aspect of the bladder.

Between rectum and bladder it forums the rectovesical pouch

90

What is the mesentery of the small intestine?

• A broad, fan shaped fold connecting the coils of the jejunum and ileum to the posterior abdominal wall

91

What is the sigmoid mesocolon?

Peritoneal fold attach the sigmoid colon to the pelvic wall