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Flashcards in Session 4 Deck (12):

Define the terms 'lay beliefs', lay referral' and 'illness/symptom iceberg'

Lay beliefs - how people understand and make sense of health and illness, constricted nhs people with no specialised knowledge
Lay referral - the chain of advice seeking contacts which sick make with other lay people prior to/instead of seeking help from HCPs
Health/illness iceberg - most symptoms never get to doctor due to culture, stoical attitude, visibility of symptoms, extent it disrupts life, frequency and persistence, tolerance threshold, information/understanding, availability of resources, lay referral


Define the different perceptions of health

Positive definition - health is a state of wellbeing and fitness
Functional definition - health is the ability to do certain things
Negative definition - health equates to the absence of illness


Define the difference influences on behaviour

Health behaviour - activity undertaken for purpose of maintaining health and preventing illness
Illness behaviour - activity of ill person to define illness and seek solution
Sick role behaviour - formal response to symptoms, seeking formal help and action of person as a patient


Describe different adherence to treatments

Deniers and distances - don't take medication
Acceptors - take medication proactively
Pragmatists - take medication with flare ups, seen as mild, acute illness


Define the terms 'primary', 'secondary' and 'tertiary prevention'

Primary prevention - prevent the onset of disease or injury by reducing exposure of risk factors e.g. immunisation, prevention of contact, precautions, reducing risk factors
Secondary prevention - detect and treat a disease at an early stage e.g. screening, monitoring BP
Tertiary prevention - minimise the effects of an established disease e.g. renal transplants, asthma steroids


Define the term 'health promotion'

The process of enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health.
It's not just the responsibility of the health sector, but goes beyond health lifestyles to wellbeing


Illustrate some of the dilemmas raised by health promotion

Ethics of interfering in people's lives - nanny state
Victim blaming - plays down socioeconomic/environmental impacts
Fallacy of empowerment - information does not equal power
Reinforcing negative stereotypes
Unequal distribution of responsibility
The prevention paradox - not much effect on individual, anomalies/randomness links with lay beliefs


Discuss the determinants of health and disease

Economic environment


Distinguish between the health promotion strategies

Medical/preventative - seek early detection
Behaviour change
Educational - leaflets, posters
Empowerment - patient centred
Social change - shift the norm


Explain evaluation of health promotion

Rigorous and systematic collection of data to assess the effectiveness of a programme in achieving predetermined objectives
By evidence based interventions, accountability, ethical obligation, programme management


Decide the principles of health promotion

Empowering - enabling individuals and communities to assume more power over the determinants of health
Participatory - involving all concerned at all stages of the process
Holistic - fostering physical, mental, social, and spiritual health
Intersectoral - involving the collaboration of agencies from relevant sectors
Equitable - guided by concern for equity and social justice
Sustainable - bringing about changes that individuals and communities can maintain
Multi strategy - uses a variety of approaches including policy development, organisational change, community development, legislation


Explain why understanding lay beliefs are important in medical practise

Why the delay in seeking help
How/why/when people consult a doctor
Use of health services and medication
Use of alternative medicines