Session 4 - Hypertension Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Session 4 - Hypertension Deck (9)
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1

What systems provide physiological control of blood pressure?

Autonomic nervous system
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

Others:
- bradykinin
- endothelin
- nitric oxide
- atrial natriuretic peptide

2

What is the difference between primary (essential) and secondary hypertension?

Primary (essential) hypertension - high blood pressure without any single evident cause

Secondary hypertension - high blood pressure with a discrete, identifiable underlying cause

3

What are the basic principles for treatment of hypertension?

Identify and treat underlying cause if present.
Identify and treat other cardiovascular sick factors or co-morbidities.
Lifestyle advice/non-pharmacological therapy
Pharmacological therapy

4

What lifestyle therapy should be given to hypertensive patients?

Patient education
Maintain normal body weight (BMI 20-25 kg/m2)
Reduce salt intake
Limit alcohol consumption
Engage in regular exercise
Consume more than 5 portions of fruit/veg a day
Smoking cessation (no effect on blood pressure, but reduces cardiovascular risk)
Relaxation therapies (reduce blood pressure for a short time, no long term benefit)

5

What is the first line pharmacological treatment for hypertension?

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors / Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB)

Calcium channel blockers

Diuretics

6

Give examples of ACE inhibitors.

Lisinopril
Ramipril

7

What are the side effects of ACE inhibitors?

Main side effect - dry cough
Other important side effects:
- Angio-oedema (rare, but more common in black population)
- renal failure (including renal artery stenosis)
- hyperkalaemia

8

Give examples of Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARB).

Losartan
Candesartan

9

What are the side effects of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB)?

They are generally well tolerated with few side effects.

Possible important side effects:
- renal failure
- hyperkalaemia