Severson/Things Severson Would Like/Ruff (even though I think he doesn't likes her) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Severson/Things Severson Would Like/Ruff (even though I think he doesn't likes her) Deck (102):
1

subthalamic nucleus (STN) lesion

CONTRALATERAL hemiballismus

2

dorsal spinocerebellar tract through ________ peduncle
synapses on ________

dorsal spino cerebellar tract through INFERIOR CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLE
and synapses on GRANULE CELLS and DCN

3

cortico-olivary tract: IPS or CON

cortex and inferior olivary nucleus IPSILATERAL

4

rubro-olivary tract: IPS or CON

red nucleus to inferior olivary nucleus IPSILATERAL

5

olivo-cerebellar tract: IPS or CON

inferior olivary nucleus to CONTRALATERAL molecular layer and DCN (CLIMBING FIBERS)

6

tract through inferior cerebellar peduncle

olivocerebellar (climbing fibers)**** CONTRALATERAL

*all other fibers coming in are mossy and go to granular layer

7

purkinje cells inhibit

DCN deep cerebellar nuclei

8

cerebellum input

olivocerebellar
pontocerebellar
corticocerebellar pathway (corticopontine IPS + pontocerebellar CON)

9

cortico-pontine tract: IPS or CON

cortex > IC > cerebral peduncle > pontine nuclei IPSILATERAL

10

ponto-cerebellar tract: IPS or CON

pontine nuclei > MCP > mossy fibers (and DCN) > granular layer > parallel fibers CONTRALATERAL

11

climbing fibers only found

from INFERIOR OLIVARY to CONtralateral MOLECULAR layer of cerebellum through INFERIOR CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLE

12

decorticate

SUPRATENTORIAL
red nucleus and brainstem centers intact
upper limb flexion
lower limb extension

13

decerebrate

POSTERIOR FOSSA
loss of red nucleus and brainstem
all limbs extension

14

dentato-rubro-thalamic tract: IPS or CON

DCN > SCP is IPSILATERAL
SCP > red nucleus and thalamus is CONTRALATERAL

15

superior cerebellar peduncle SCP

EFF have cell bodies in DCN

16

rubrospinal tract: IPS or CON

red nucleus > spinal cord CONTRALATERAL
contributes to flexion of upper limb

17

vestibulocerebellar tract associated with

fastigial DCN

18

MLF conects

CN III, IV, VI and vestibular nuclei
HEAD AND EYE MOVEMENTS

19

Area 4

precentral gyrus
BETZ CELLS

20

Area 17

primary visual cortex
STELLATE CELLS

21

horizontal component eye movements regulated by

PPRF

22

vertical component eye movements regulated by

rostral interstitial uncle of MLF

23

saccades are

BILATERAL

24

PPRF projects to

IPSILATERAL abducens CN VI
CONTRALATERAL oculomotor CN III

25

FEF lesion

loos voluntary saccades to CONTRALATERAL side
deviate eye TOWARDS side of lesion
stuck on what have INVOLUNTARILY looked at, as determined by Superior Colliculus

26

primary motor cortex homunculus areas are proportional to

fine motor control

27

M1 cortex stimulus

LOW STIMULUS INTENSITIES
hallmark

28

M1 encodes direction:

populations of nerves encode movement

29

M1 inputs

proprioceptive: CONTRALATERAL
other cortical areas (primary somatosensory, premotor, SMA, cingulate, post parietal)
cerebellum

30

Premotor cortex
PMd
PMv

PMd: dorsal: REACHING
PMv: ventral: GRASPING, COGNITIVE CONTROL = (MIRROR NEURONS)

31

PM inputs

SMA, CMA, prefrontal, post parietal, cerebellum, bg

32

PM fxn

high level motor coordination
complex MULTI-JOINT movements
ACTION SEQ
EXTERNALLY DRIVEN STIM
PREPARE MOVEMENTS rehearse in head move
MIRROR NEURONS see action happening, same neurons firing in your head
BEHAVIOR CONTEXT increase firing when coffee cup full than when empty (drinking coffee behavior almost done)

33

PM lesion

inability to:
respond to stimuli properly KNOW HOW TO BRUSH TEETH BUT CAN'T WHEN HANDED TOOTHBRUSH
plan appropriately CAN'T PICK UP FOOD FROM UNDER TABLE IN DIFFERENT WAY
learn new sensory-motor associations CAN'T LEARN "PURPLE MEANS GO"
steer arm accurately CAN'T BRUSH TEETH

34

SMA homunculus

ORTHOGONAL to M1 homunculus
towards eyes: face
towards back of head: legs

35

SMA stimulus

motion in MULTIPLE JOINTS (>M1, POSTURAL changes
INTERNAL GENERATION OF MOVEMENT i will go get a coffee
LEARN SEQUENCES OF MOVEMENTS
MENTAL REHEARSAL

36

proficiency at motor sequence?

decreased SMA activity, M1 assumes control = chunking

37

SMA inputs

M1, prefrontal, posterior parietal, bg and cerebellum

38

SMA lesion

lose INTERNAL DRIVE to movements
loss of suppression of motor programs triggered by visual stimulation
1. alien hand syndrome: CONTRALATERAL
2. utilization behavior: use of objects in inappropriate setting (usually suppressed)

39

postural tone is managed by

alpha MNs

40

feed-forward adjustments

anticipatory
RETICULOSPINAL TRACT

41

feedback adjustments

VESTIBULOSPINAL TRACT: contacts alpha and motor neurons
senses when off kilter and adjusts muscle tone appropriately

42

vestibulospinal tract reflexes

VESTIBULOCOLLIC reflex: acts on neck to move head
VESTIBULOSPINAL reflex: adjusts limbs
reflex to maintain balance

43

other descending tracts provide central control of posture by (need 2/3 to be balanced)

vision
proprioception
vestibular

44

cortex tell head not to flip back when going to bend down to pick up something OR postural tone before running
= example of what adjustment and tracts

FEEDFORWARD ADJUSTMENT
CORTICORETICULAR TRACT
RETICULOSPINAL TRACT

45

pontine reticular formation

inhibited by cortex
excites gamma MNs

46

medullary reticular formation

excited by cortex
inhibits gamma MNs

47

net effect of corticoreticular and reticulospinal tracts:

cortex damps down gamma MN activity > MODULATES TONE (DECREASES TONE)

48

corticospinal system lesion
PYRAMIDAL TRACT

LOSS FINE MOTOR CONTROL
brainstem control centers compensate (other descending)

49

corticospinal system lesion
SPINAL CORD TRANSECTION

all descending systems lost
FLACCID PARALYSIS
NO REFLEXES
gamma and alpha MNs have no input from CNS

***REFLEXES RETURN AS HYPERREFLEXIA
also HYPERTONIA

50

corticospinal system lesion
MI or IC

LOSS OF TONE
weakness, hypotonia
"spinal shock" followed by BABKINSKI, HYPERREFLEXIA, HYPERTONIA, CLONUS, CLASP KNIFE RIGIDITY

DECORTICATE ;if above red nucleus and brainstem

51

corticobulbar tract

projects from cortex to CN nuclei, especially with motor capabilities

52

corticospinal tract pathway

M1, PM, SMA, somatosensory > IC > cerebral peduncle > pons > pyramidal tracts on ventral medulla > spinal cord

90% decussate > lateral corticospinal tract > distal limbs
10% doesn't > anterior corticospinal tract > axial/prox limbs

53

cortico bulbar projections to:

most all BILATERAL
III: eye movements
IV: eye movements
V: chewing
VI: eye movements
VII: facial move (CONTRALATERAL LOWER FACE)
IX: larynx and upper airway
X: larynx and upper airway
XI: SCM, trapezius
XII: tongue move

54

corticospinal, once in SC: contacts

alpha MNs: LMNS and interneurons to coordinate multi joint movements

55

cortex controls _______, NOT _______

motions, not muscles

56

rubrospinal tract neurons

magnocellular: large. input from M1, output to SC

parvo cellular: small. input from cerebellum, output to inferior olive

CONTRALATERAL bc axons decussate almost immediately from red nucleus

57

main clinical signs of cerebellar lesion

ataxia
action tremor
nystagmus
loss of balance

58

associated DCN
vermis =
paravermis =
lateral hemispheres =

vermis = fastigial
paravermis = emboliform and globus
lateral hem = dentate

59

don't eat green frogs (lateral to medial)

lateral: dentate > emboliform > globus > fastigial: medial

60

vermis fxns

MIDLINE FXNS
speech, posture, stance, gait, visceral

61

paravermis fxn

APPENDICULAR MOVEMENTS
reaching
grasping

62

lateral hemispheres fxn

extensive reciprocal connections with cortex
spatially and temporally complex
cognition
PLAYING PIANO

63

granule cells are

most numerous cell in brain

64

start at granule cells >

granule cells > bifurcate > become parallel fibers > axons perpendicular to purkinje dendrites > ENORMOUS INTEGRATION OF INFO > purkinje to DCN > output

65

mossy fibers to

climbing fibers to

DCN and granule cells

DCN and purkinje cells

66

cerebellar damage type tremor

ACTION TREMOR

67

Associative Learning system

EFFERENT COPY + REAFFERANT SENSORY

68

cerebrocerebellum is a source of ______ fibers

mossy fibers
to lateral hemisphers

69

vestibulaocerebellum from

vestibular nerve CN VIII and nuclei to flocculonodular lobe

70

spinocerebellum from

S and M from SC and vestibular, auditory, visual info to vermis and paravermis

71

basal ganglia input zone

corpus striaum: caudate nucleu and putamen

72

palladium receives input from

striatal output

73

basal ganglia fxn

selecting between mutually exclusive actions
PROMOTE ONE, SUPPRESS OTHER
CHOOSE FROM INPUTS:
external environment
internal state
associated memories and emotions
efferent copy
salience of possible actions

74

basal state of basal ganglia is

to do nothing -RUFF

75

medium spiny neurons (2 kinds)

1. GABA/substance P > GPi and SNr
1. GABA/enkephalin > GPe

76

need dopaminergic neurons to do

DA linked to

goal oriented movements

reward system

77

basal ganglia motor circuitry

all neurons inhibitory in basal ganglia (putamen, SNr, GPi, GPe)
EXCEPT subthalamic nucleus STN = excitatory

78

caudate nucleus pathway

caudate nucleus inhibits > SNr > brainstem >
1. superior colliculs > eye movement
2. PPT > locomotion

79

Parkinson disease

decrease in SNc = LOSS OF DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS

Sx:
bradykinesia
shuffling gait
cogwheel/lead pipe rigidity
tremor AT REST
dementia

80

Huntington disease

decrease act. of GPe >
choreiform
hyperkinsia

81

direct and indirect bg pathways work _______ to ensure a single desired action is activated

together
1. motor cortex says "i want to do something" activates DIRECT projections to appropriate motor programs
2. motor cortex "" > INDIRECT projections to all the competing motor programs

82

default network of cognitive processing

involved in

posteior parietal, posterio cingulate, dorsolateral prefrontal, medial prefrontal, medial temporal, vostrolateral temporal

day dreaming
autobiographic memories
envisioning future
moral decisions

83

cognition occurs between

stimulus and response (waiting for bus monologue)

84

association cortices

premotor
somatosensorty
auditory assoc
visual assoc
= unimodal

all others = multimodal

85

corticocortical connections

callosal connections

within same hemisphere

with other hemisphere

86

thalamic nucleus input

retina > lateral geniculate > primary visual cortex

cochlea > medial geniculate > primary auditory cortex

skin (ML) > VPL > primary somatosensory cortex

association cortex, superior colliculus > pulvinar > parietotemporal and visual association cortex

superior colliculus, oflactory, amygdala, ventral pallidum > medial dorsal > RER, ant cingulate cortex

assoc crtex, ant. cingulate, retina > lateral posterior > parieta, visual assoc, striatum

hypothalamus, hippocampus, cigulate > anterior > posterior cingulate

87

parietal cortex fxn
dominant hemisphere
nondominant hemisphere

dominant: skilled movements
R-L orientation

nondominant: attention/selective attn STROOP TEST
visuospatial localization (search, reach object)
spatial relationships (bind elements of visual scene together as single image)

88

posterior parietal cortex damage

SPATIAL NEGLECT (nondominant hemisphere): failure to acknowledged half of world
R controls visual fields of both sides

MOTOR APRAXIAS (dominant hemisphere): loss movement,loss ability to perform skilled motions
ex; IDEOMOTOR APRAXIA know how but physically unable: gestures or use of tools TOOTHBRUSH EXAMPLE

89

temporal assoiation cortex
superior temporal sulcus >
inferior temporal sulcus >

superior > LANGUAGE AND SOCIAL ATTENTION
inferior > RECOGNITION

90

temporal association cortex uses __________ to recognize faces

population coding of neurons to recognize (faces, things)

91

temporal assoication cortex lesions >

AGNOSIA

92

prospagnosia

inability to recognize faces
BILATERAL lesion INF TEMP COR

93

visual agnosia

inability to recognize an object
UNIMODAL VISUAL CORTEX damage

94

astereognosia

inability to recognize object by touch alone
UNIMODAL SOMATOSENSORY lesion

95

associative visual agnosia

can id, but not name
POSTEIOR PARIETAL damage

96

finger agnosia

can't recognize fingers
ANGULAR GYRUS of dominant PARIETAL CORTEX

97

Gentmann syndrome

figer agnosia
acalculia (can't do math)
agraphia (can't write)
R-L confusion

98

frontal association cortex

executive fun and planning

99

frontal associaion cortex damage

association with personality
IMPAIRED IMPULSE CONTROL
SOCIAL INAPPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR
DISORDERED THOUGHT
PERSEVERATION
COGNITIVE INFLEXIBILITY
phineas gage

WISCONSIN CARD SORTING SHIT = perseveration

100

maturation of cortex
@ birth
1 yr

facts

@ birth: not integrated
1 yr: rapid development

1. synaptic density
2. myelination
3. gray matter thickness

101

maturation of cortex rate

not uniform
1. sesorimotor
2. unimodal association areas
3. high connect prefrontal

*last area to mature = first to degenerate

102

more plastic >

susceptible to changes