Sexual History Taking, Eating Disorders, Pain Management Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Sexual History Taking, Eating Disorders, Pain Management Deck (46)
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List the 8 steps involved in taking a comprehensive sexual history

1. Ask- Most people will not be comfortable to bring up sexual matters, however if a provider asks, they will gladly provide that information
2. Use Patient Centered Language
3. Normalize
4. Ask Permission
5. Assure Confidentiality
6. Non-judgemental attitude
7. Share limited information
8. Focus hx and counseling on HIV/STI reduction


key info to ask about when taking a sexual hx

1. assess number of partners in last 6 months, abstinence, or monogomy
2. sexual orientation and behavior
3. type of barrier/contraception
4. avoiding sex w/ excessive substance use
5. recommend truvada?
6. harm reductions


when is recommending Truvada appropriate

1. Sero-disconcordant couples
2. MSM with STI in past 6 months
3. Any high risk behaviors above
4. IV drug use


what are some harm reduction approaches for sexual practices

1. Monogamy with an uninfected partner
2. Reduction in the number of sexual partners
3. Engaging in lower-risk sexual practices
4. Consistent and correct use of barrier methods
5. Avoiding excessive substance use
6. Referrals to community programs


ABC-T of reducing sexual risk

1. abstinence
2. be monogamous
3. condoms
4. truvada


how can you use patient centered language when taking sexual history

1. Use language appropriately to what a patient uses to describe themselves and their family
2. A patient has the right to define themselves as they wish
3. Use gender-neutral pronouns
4. For relationship status and sexual health discussions, use the term “partner” rather than boyfriend, girlfriend, husband or wife


Develop a standard phrase to use in normalizing sexual history taking

Discussing sexual concerns with a stranger is not typical for your patients, so try to normalize by saying something like

“Sexual health is important to overall health; therefore, I always ask patients about it.”


Develop a standard phrase to use in obtaining permission to ask sexual history questions

• Always ask permission when discussing “sensitive” matters

Ex: “If it’s okay with you, I’ll ask you a few question about sexual matters now.”


Explain to a patient the significance of confidentiality as it pertains to sexual information

-Assure to the patient that everything they say will be kept confidential, even within your practice

Ex: “Everything we discuss is private protected information between you and me as your provider”

-Only reason confidentiality wouldn’t be kept is if laws around breaking confidentiality (ex. Certain STDs need to be reported to the state, if the patient is a harm to themselves or others, etc.)


Identify risk factors associated with the development of an eating disorder

1. Perfectionist personality: harm avoidant: do not take risks
2. Genetic factors: dopamine and chromosome-related factors
3. Social family stress
4. Cultural pressure / body dissatisfaction
5. Competitive sports
6. Puberty: teenage girls most common (middle of bell curve)


Recognize the typical pattern and warning signs associated with the development of an eating disorder

1. Temperament traits: perfectionism, harm avoidance, intolerance of uncertainty
2. Body dissatisfaction
3. Stressors related to transition to a different school, peer group changes, athletic competition, family changes
4. Decision to change body shape / weight
5. Cutting down in food eaten, usually starts with eliminating desserts / fats, then carbs, and portion sizes
6. Efforts to increase exercise
7. Skipping meals, purging, laxative abuse
8. Increasing levels of preoccupation and intensity of behaviors


Behavioral warning signs for eating disorder

1. Change in eating patterns
-Smaller portions
-Avoiding desserts
-Preference for non-fat or vegetarian foods
-Binge eating / food missing
2. Avoiding eating with others
3. Frequent comments about body dissatisfaction
4. Increasing amounts of exercise (can appear driven)
5. Weight loss or weight fluctuations


List the key symptoms/DSM 5 criteria for diagnosing anorexia

Requires presence of all 3 of the following:
1. Energy restriction leading to significantly low body weight (adjusted for age, sex, etc.)
2. Intense fear of gaining weight or behavior interfering with weight gain
3. Disturbance of self-perceived weight or shape
-Distorted body image

-Restricting type: no recurrent episodes of binging of purging in last 3 months
-Binge-eating/purging type: recurrent episodes of binging of purging in last 3 months


sub types of anorexia

-Restricting type: no recurrent episodes of binging of purging in last 3 months

-Binge-eating/purging type: recurrent episodes of binging of purging in last 3 months


describe the BMI classifications for mild, moderate, severe, extreme

-Mild: BMI > 17 kg/m2
-Moderate: BMI 16-16.9 kg/m2
-Severe: BMI 15-15.9 kg/m2
-Extreme: BMI < 15 kg/m2


List the key symptoms/DSM 5 criteria for diagnosing bulimia

1. Recurrent episodes of binge eating
2. Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior (must have a purging behavior - or Dx would be BED)
3. Binge eating and compensatory behaviors both occur at least once a week for 3 months

Note: dx cannot be made if binge and compensating behaviors occur only during episodes of anorexia nervosa


what is the best tx for bulimia



List the key symptoms/DSM 5 criteria for diagnosing binge eating disorder (BED)

1. Binge Eating Disorder (BED) – above without criterion B (no purging)
2. Binge eating episodes are associated with at least 3 of the following:
-Eating more rapidly than normal
-Eating until feeling uncomfortably full
-Eating large amount of food when not feeling physically hungry
-Eating alone because embarrassed by how much one is eating
-Feeling disgusted with oneself, depressed, or guilty after over eating

Note: dx cannot be made if binge behavior occurs only during episodes of anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa


Ask pertinent history questions to assess a patient for a potential eating disorder

1. In the context of concern about weight loss or weight fluctuations related to an eating disorder
2. personal "story" of disordere eating
3. max and minimum weights (large flutcuations is a BIG flag)
4. goal weight, size, appearnace
5. dietary practices


Explain the most important components of the physical exam related to eating disorders

*the growth chart, the gowned weight and the urine specific gravity)
2. Gown weight after voiding (to get rid of water, removal of heavy clothes)
3. Urine specific gravity (if water loading is suspected)
4. Orthostatic vital signs (lying down – standing up)
5. History of weight patterns (highest, lowest)
6. History of eating patterns (changes, vegetarian, narrowing of variety?)
7. Menstrual history (for females)
8. Exercise history (increase in activity?)
9. Drive for thinness, fear of fat?
10. Changes in mood: withdrawal from friends and family, depression, suicidal ideation?
-Self Injurious behavior
11. Purging, laxative use, diet pills


Decide when a patient needs increased care and/or hospitalization for anorexia

1. Biggest: bradycardia (resting pulse less than 45) – lying down
2. Most common factor precipitating medical admission is a dramatic increase in activity level leading to bradycardia and more rapid weight loss
3. Weight less than 75% of Ideal Body weight
4. Resting Pulse less than45
5. Potassium (K+) <3.0 – from purging (electrolyte imbalance)
6. Intake less than 750 calories / day


runner vs anorexic

-runner will have bradycardia all of the time

-Hint to anorexia nervosa is when this changes from resting, morning, during day


Explain some of the most common medical complications of anorexia

1. sucide is leadin gcuase of death in eating disorders
2. cardiac events are second
3. Osteopenia and osteoporosis (weak bones)
4. Bone marrow suppression: anemia/increased risk of infection
5. Seizures: possible effect of fluid loading to hide weight loss at medical visits
6. Amenorrhea, fertility issues, growth retardation, dentil erosion, anemia, constipation, poor sleep, impaired immunity, pancreatitis edema, etc.


Explain the cause and risks associated with Refeeding Syndrome

-Complex condition that occurs as a result of severe electrolyte and fluid shifts in response to refeeding if calories are increased too quickly (NG feeding)
-Too much for body to handle
1. Hypophosphatemia is the hallmark
2. Hypokalemia and hypomagnesia may occur

3. hypotension,
4. arrhythmia,
5. cardiac or
6. respiratory failure,
7. rhabdomyolysis,
8. CNS: delerium, seizure, coma
9. Liver edema, hepatitis


what is a safe increase of calories for refeeding

Safe: inc. 250 calories a day


Be able to effectively follow an anorexic patient post-hospitalization

1. multidisciplinary team (include the family)
2. freuquency of visits detemined by pt and family needs
3. readjust IBW every 2-3 months
4. post-goin weight, resting HR, orthostatic HR
5. labs: electrolytes if vomiting, urine specific grav. if water loading


what is a reasonable wt gain for someone who was anorex

1/2-1lb per week


Describe problems associated with opioid overuse/misuse in individual patients and to society as a whole

1. high abuse potential for opioids
2. prescription drug OD: resp. depression and sedation


Harms Associated with high dose Opioids

1. Constipation, nausea, sedation, respiratory depression and others
2. Hyperalgesia: paradoxical increased sensitivity to pain (can occur w/ high doses – increased pain)
3. Hypogonadism/lowered testosterone levels, falls/fracture risk


Explain how increased opioid prescribing is related to the increase in heroin use (and overdoses)

- Opioids for chronic pain often prescribed with no ceiling dose (bad medicine!)
- Risk of overdose begins to increase at over50 mg morphine mg equivalents (MME)/day, and continues to rise in dose-dependent fashion
-Very limited data on effectiveness of opioids at higher doses
-Increased opioid prescribing can increase dependence on higher doses of opioids
-Patients develop tolerance to opioid and turn to heroine