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Flashcards in Simple Grammar Deck (18)
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Nominative: subject of the sentence.

Nominative-The "dog" is in the garden.
"canis" in horto est


Vocative: when somebody is directly speaking to that object/person.

Vocative-"Septimus", where are you?
"Septime," tu es ubi?"


Accusative: the object of the sentence, when something is happening directly to it. Direct Object.

Accusative-I see "the dog".
ego "canem" vidi


Genitive: used to show possession. In English, it translates as "of..."

Genitive-The house "of the master."
villa "domini"


Dative: show something being done to or for something else. Indirect Object.

Dative-I give the money "to the mistress".
ego pecuniam "dominae" do


Ablative: similar to the accusative, but is used when something is indirectly happening to the object. In English, the noun is normally preceded by "by", "with", "on", "under" and similar words.

Ablative-The dog is "in the garden."
canis "in horto" est


Nominative-Indicates the subject of a sentence.

The "girl" loves the book.


Genitive-Indicates possession.

The boy loves "the girl’s" book.


Dative-Indirect object.

The boy gave the book "to the girl."


Accusative-Direct object.

The boy loves "the book".


Ablative-Answers the questions from where? by what means? how? from what cause? in what manner? when? or where?

The boy went to the store "with the girl."


Vocative-direct address.

"Son", pick up the book.

O regina! O queen!



Present Tense-I love
Future Simple-I shall love
Imperfect-I was loving
Perfect-I have loved
Future Perfect-I shall have loved
Pluperfect-I had loved


Tenses (imperfect)

To describe a past action or state which is incomplete, we use an imperfect tense. This tense indicates an action which has gone on over a period time or has happened frequently. It is translated into English by ‘was/were’ + ‘-ing’ or ‘used to’.

Ego Lucie nuntium dab=I was giving a message to Lucy
Compare with Perfect:
Ego Lucie nuntium deli = I gave a message to Lucy


Imperfect tense endings

Latin English
-bam I
-bas you (singular)
-bat he/she/it
-bamus we
-batis you (plural)
-bant they



"Perfect" comes from the Latin perfectus, meaning "completed." If a verb is in the perfect tense, the action of that verb has been completed.

Past tense (perfect)
Ego Lucie nuntium deli = I gave a message to Lucy

As opposed to (imperfect)

Ego Lucie nuntium dab=I was giving a message to Lucy


Tenses-Future Perfect

The future perfect is a verb form or construction used to describe an event that is expected or planned to happen before a time of reference in the future, such as will have finished in the English sentence "I will have finished by tomorrow." It is a grammatical combination of the future tense, or other marking of future time, and the perfect, a grammatical aspect that views an event as prior and completed.

In Latin conjugation the future perfect is found by using the perfect stem + a declined future being verb (ero). An exception is that the active indicative third person plural is formed from the perfect stem + erint, instead of + erunt: amaverint, not amaverunt.

The future perfect active is formed like this:

perfect stem + future perfect
suffix + thematic
vowel + person and
number ending

dix- -er- -i- -mus

We shall have spoken



(pluperfect) derives from the Latin plus quam perfectum, "more than perfect" – the Latin perfect refers to something that occurred in the past, while the pluperfect refers to something that occurred "more" (further) in the past than the perfect.

Pecuniam mercatori dederat. ("He had given money to the merchant"; active)