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Flashcards in Skill Acquistion Deck (23):

Describe the Continuum for Difficulty.

Based on decision making

Complex skill= Involves a high level of decision making and has a large cognitive/ thinking element to it.

Simple Skill= Has a limited amount of information to process and a smaller cognitive element.


Describe the Continuum for Environmental Influence.


Open skill= Is one that is affected by the sporting environment. The performer has to make decisions in response to their surroundings.

Closed skill= Involves less decision making as it has a predictable environment. Performer can take time to execute the skill.


Describe the Continuum for Pacing.

Self Paced-Externally Paced

Self Paced skill= Is at the control of the performer and the rate of execution is decided before execution.

Externally Paced skill= Is controlled but factors out of the performers control.


Describe the Continuum for Muscular Involvement.


Fine skill=Involves intricate, precise movements that use small muscle groups and generally involve high levels of hand eye coordination.

Gross Skill=Involves large muscle movements which aren't very precise and include many fundamental movements (e.g. Running, jumping etc)


Describe the Continuum for Continuity.


Discrete= Brief, well defined actions that have a clear beginning and end.

Serial= A group of discrete skills strung together to make a new and complex movement.

Continuous= Have no clear beginning or end, end of one cycle of movement is the beginning of the next cycle.


Describe the Continuum for Organisation.

Low Organised-High Organised

Low Organised= Very easy and uncomplicated.The phases that make up the skill are usually discrete.

High Organised= Has a complex amount of phases which can't be broken down or practised separately. They require large amounts of attention.


State the 5 types of Transfer of skills.



Describe Proactive Transfer of skills.
Give a sporting example.

The influence of one skill on the performance of another skill.

E.g. Knowing how to do a push pass and then doing a strike in hockey.


Describe Retroactive Transfer of Skills.
Give a sporting example.

The influence of one skill on the LEARNING of a skill.

E.g. Learning how to do a free kick after being able to do a shot in football.


Describe Positive Transfer of skills.

When one skill helps another which can include transfer of skills between different sports.

E.g. Being able to do a backhand in tennis and learning how to do a backhand hit in Badminton.


Describe Negative transfer of skills.
Give a sporting example.

The learning of one skill that HINDERS the learning of another skills.

E.g. Learning to serve in tennis compared to serving in badminton.


Describe Bilateral Transfer of skills.
Give a sporting example.

The transfer of learning from one limb to another.

E.g. Being able to do a penalty shot in football with your right foot and then learning to do it with your left foot.


Name the 3 learning theories.

-Observational Learning
-Operant Conditioning
-Cognitive Learning


Describe the Observational Learning theory.
Who was it developed by?

Developed by Bandura
States that performers learn new skills by observing others.
They develop a mental picture of how the skill movement is performed, they learn through demonstrations and can copy from a role model.


What are the 4 stages to Bandura's theory?
Describe each stage.

1.Attention- watch a demonstration and identify cues.
2.Retention- create the mental picture of the skill required, practising skill in mind so correct skills are performed in correct order.
3.Motor Reproduction- the physical movement to perform the skill and age the ability to be able to repeat the skill either first time or through a series of progressions.
4.Motivation- the learners need, want or desire to replicate the skill


What are Thorndike's 3 Laws?

-Law of Exercise
-Law of Effect
-Law of Readiness


Describe the Law of Exercise.

Exercising the SR Bond helps to strengthen and reinforce the correct skill (in favourable conditions).


Describe the Law of Effect.

If the skill is followed by a pleasant reaction then the SR Bond is strengthened.
If the reaction is negative then the SR Bond is weakened.

Performer is more likely to repeat the task if the behaviour is followed by praise etc.


Describe the Law of Readiness.

The athlete must be mentally and physically capable of performing the skill efficiently and be motivated, ready to do it.


What Theory does Trial and Error Learning link in with?
Describe Trial and Error learning.
Give a sporting example.

Links with Operant Conditioning.

Involves testing various methods of achieving a goal until you find one that works.

Can be a slow process.

E.g. Changing your grip on a tennis racket.


Describe the Cognitive Learning theory.
What type of ability is used?

The performer needs to understand the whole problem before performing the skill correctly.

They base their response on previous experiences and the current situation.
Perceptual Ability is used to decide on the response based on their skill level and the task at hand.


Give a sporting example of when the Cognitive Learning Theory would be used.

When a high jumper is performing he whole skill to enable them to decide the best technique for them i.e. which foot they take off from.


Describe the Operant Conditioning Theory.
Who developed it?
Give a sporting example.

The environment is manipulated to shape or modify behaviour.

Positive/Negative reinforcement and punishment are used to strengthen the SR Bond.

Developed by Skinner.

E.g. Practising badminton serves and having to place each shot in a different area of the court.