Skin Appendages Flashcards Preview

Dermatology > Skin Appendages > Flashcards

Flashcards in Skin Appendages Deck (62):
1

Teloptosis

Telogen hairs falling out

2

Lag period btw loss of telogen hair and growth of a new anagen hair

Kenogen

3

Where hair is not found

Palms, soles, labia minora, lips, nails, glans, prepuce

4

AA nail changes

Uniform pits > trachyonycia, onychomadesis, red or spotted lunula

5

AA

Asssociated with higher incidence of downs and LP

6

AA pathogenesis

Early hair loss mediated by type 1 cytokines (IL2, IFN, TNF)
Both CD8 and 4 cells found
Normally there is low MHC 1 expr = immune privilege
25+ fhx

7

Early onset familial AA HLA

DR4, DR11, DQ7

8

Shear hair shafts at night with clumps of hair lost

Pheidole ants

9

Topical immunotherapy in AA

Decrease in activated T cells, decr in CD8, reduced expr of cd44- blockade of leukocyte trafficking

10

Poor prognosis in AA

AD, childhood onset, widespread, ophiasis, duration > 5 yrs

11

Pregnancy

Prolong telogen during pregnancy = hair loss after delivery

12

Cause telogen effluvium

Minoxodil, papulosquamous dz of scalp

Trichodynia is a common sx

13

Angrogenetic alopecia

Miniaturization, variable hair shaft, incr telogen hairs

14

Anagen effluvium

From hair shaft fracture
Sudden shut down of matrix results in shaft tapering
Severe loss with doxorubicin, nitrosureas, cyclophosphamide
Also INH

15

Male pattern

Incr 5 alpha reductive = inc dht
TGF beta1 mediates hair growth suppression
Narrow, short hairs, incr telogen hairs, incr kenogen
Mast cells in follicle and sparse lymho at infundibulum

16

Minoxidil

Promotes survival of dermal papillae cells, prolongs anagen, enlarged hair shaft diameter
Takes 2 mo, must continue

17

Follicular mucinosis

Mucin in ORS and seb glands

18

DLE

Incr anagen hairs in active dz
Loss of elastic fibers

19

Erosive pustular dermatosis

Class 1 steroid

20

Compound hairs

2 or more hairs sharing an infundibulum

21

Scalp tumors that cause alopecia

Syringoma, n. Sheath myxoma, steatocystoma multiplex

22

KFPD

May have ocular
X linked

23

Melanin production in hair

Cytoplasm of melanocytes
Cyclical vs continuous in epi
Braying - reduction of tyrosinase activity, few melanocytes and soles, ROS mediated damage to nuclear and mito DNA in bulbar melanocytes
Brown hair = smaller melanos
Pheomelanin = high sulfur content from the addition of cysteine to dopaquinone

24

Early graying

Progeria, rocyhmund thompson, book, werner

25

Poliosis

Tietz, alezzandeini, TS, NF

26

Alternating light and dark bands

Iron deficiency, sunitinib

27

Whitening of hair

B12, IFN, chloroquine

Reddish tint- diazoxide
Xanthotrichia (yellow) - selenium sulfide, dihydroxyacetone

28

Hair cast

IRS remnants

Girls 2-8, PSO, LP, seb derm, trichotill

29

Localized hypertrichosis

Filariasis, poems pretibial myx,

30

Congenital hypertrichosis lanuginosa

Spares palms/soles

Cong hyper lanuginosa - dental anomalies, gingival fibromatosus

31

Acquired perforating derm

MC legs
Renal dz, DM, HIV, hypothyroidism, liver dz, hyperpara, HL, healed zoster, laser hair removal, TNF inh

32

Traumatic anserine folliculosis

Follicular hyperkeratosis from friction
Elbows, etc
2/3 of pt are atopic

33

Generalized lichen spinulosis

HIV and alcoholism
Tends to involuted at puberty

34

Frey

>1/3 after parotid surgery

35

Generalized hyperhidrosis

Parkinson's, anticholinesterases, antidepr, antiglaucoma, bladder stimulants, opioids

36

Generalized anhidrosis

ED, sjogrens, multi myeloma, fabry, diabetic neuropathy, antichol, antidep, antihistamines, antihyoertensives, antiemetic, antivertigo, gastric antisecretory, m. Relaxants, neuromuscular paralytics, opioids

* over lesions of segmental vitiligo, bazex

37

Anhidrosis with pruritus

Young adults
Fine papules appear with elevated temp
Cooling
Misdial with cholinergic urticaria

38

Segmental anhidrosis with tonic pupils

Ross syndrome

Selective degeneration of cholinergic sudomotor neurons

39

Bromhidrosis

Bacterial decompensation of apocrine sweat producing fatty acids with odor

Trimethylene produced from carnitine and choline in diet and normally broken down in liver, AD form in flavin oxidizing monoxygenase 3

40

Chromhidrosis

Apocrine sweat
Face or axilla
Yellow MC
Caused by lipofuscin

Eccrine chromhidrosis from dyes on skin surface, liver failure, deep green macules on palms/soles

41

Fox fordyce

Foam cells histo marker
Improves with ocps and pregnancy

42

NEH with sclerodermoid changes

May herald an AML relapse

43

NEH

G CSf, imatinib, Tylenol, azt, serratia, enterobacter, nocardia, staph, HIV

Palmoplantar hidradenitis - recurrent, triggered by cold, damp

44

Other LP nail changes

Erythronychia, nail degloving (shedding of the nail apparatus)

Clob + tazorac

45

Pso nails

Severity may correlate with joint or skin dz


Reiters, sezary, PRP, bazex - no pitting but hypertrophic nails with subungual hyperkeratosis

5FU may help, avoid free edge bc causes distal onycholysis

46

Clubbing

Pachyderm, HIV, hypertrophic osteoarthropathy causes painful clubbing with bronchogenic CA

UL in sarcoid and takayasu

47

She'll nail syndrome

Bronchiectasis
Nail resembles clubbed nail but nailbed is atrophic instead of bulbous

48

Koilonychia

CAD, syphilis, polycythemia, AN, cold seasonal dz, moniletrix, PSO, LP, raynauds, scleroderma, steatocystoma multiplex

49

UL trachyonychia

CRPS
50% clear in 6 yrs

50

Onychogryphosis

MC neglect, may be peripheral vascular d/o

51

Onychophosis

Common in elderly
Hyperkeratosis tissue on lateral or prox nailfold
1st and 5th toe

52

Cooks syndrome

Bl nail hypoplasia of nails 1and3, absc of digits 4&5 nails, abs of all toenails, hypoplasia of distal phalanges

Other anonychia causes- door, sjs, glossopalatine syndrome ( tongue attached to tmj), R spondin 4 mutation (normally activate wnt pway)

53

Onychomadesis

Periodic shedding of nail beginning proximally
Neurological d/o, peritoneal dialysis, CTCL, PV, runners, chemo, azithromycin, retinoids

54

Absent lunula, splinter hem, half and half nails MC in hemodialysis

Leukonychia in tx pts

55

Muehrckes

Nailbed not nail plate (vs mee)

56

Mees

Aortic anyerism, parasite inf

57

Stippled nails

Pinpoint depr in nl nail

58

Chevron nail

Arise from proximal nailfold

59

Retronychia

In growing of nail plate into proximal nail fold
Avulsion is curative

60

Partial leukonychia

Tb, nephritis, CRPS, HL, chilblains, Hansen

Partial - typhoid fever, leprosy, cirrhosis, UC, nail biting

Syndrome with leukonychia totalis, multiple seb cysts, renal calculus reported

61

Erythronychia

LP, dariers

62

Blue nails

Hgb M dz, acrolabial telangietasias, fu, mino, imipramine, mepacrine, hu, phenolphthalein, azidothymidine