Skin Structure and Function 6 - Anatomy of Leg Circulation Flashcards Preview

2nd Year - Dermatology > Skin Structure and Function 6 - Anatomy of Leg Circulation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Skin Structure and Function 6 - Anatomy of Leg Circulation Deck (63):
1

What are the names of the 2 types of fascia that are located below the skin?

Superficial fascia
Deep fascia

2

What is another name for the superficial fascia?

Subcutaneous tissue

3

What is the superficial fascia composed of? (2)

Loose connective tissue and fat

4

What is the deep fascia composed of?

Dense connective tissue

5

What are intermuscular septum?

Extensions of the deep fascia that splits the muscle in the limbs into different compartments

6

How does inter muscular septa affect venous return?

It aids it

7

What is the order of the arterial supply in the arm from proximal to distal?

Subclavian
Axillary
Brachial
Ulnar + Radial
Superficial palmar arch + deep palmar arch

8

What are the names for the veins that can be seen on the posterior aspect of the hand?

Dorsal venous network

9

What is the distal vein located on the medial side of the arm?

Basilic vein

10

What is the distal vein located on the lateral side of the arm?

Cephalic vein

11

What is the vein connecting the cephalic and basilic vein?

Median cubital vein

12

What is the name of the veins that accompany the brachial artery?

Venae comitantes (pulsation of artery aids venous return)

13

What is the name for the vein under the armpit?

Axillary vein

14

What is the name of the vein proximal to the axillary vein?

Subclavian vein

15

What is distal to the radial artery?

Deep palmar arch

16

What is distal to the ulnar artery?

Superficial palmar arch

17

What is the name of the artery that the profunda femoris branches off?

Superficial femoral artery

18

What is the name for the deep artery of the thigh that branches off of the superficial femoral artery?

Produnda femoris

19

What is the adductor hiatus?

A gap between the adductor magnus muscle and femor that allows the passage of the femoral good vessels

20

What is the name of the continuation of the femoral artery after the knee?

Popliteal artery

21

What does the popliteal artery dive into?

posterior and anterior tibial arteries

22

What branches from the posterior tibial artery above the ankle joints?

Fibular artery

23

what doe the posterior tibial artery branch into after the ankle joint?

Medial plantar and lateral plantar arteries

24

What does the anterior tibial artery branch into after the ankle joint?

Dorsalis pedis and arcuate artery

25

What are the 2 main superficial veins of the leg?

Great saphenous vein
Small saphenous vein

26

Where does the great saphenous vein arise from?

Dorsal venous arch along medial aspect of limb

27

What are the 2 main deep veins of the leg - running proximal to distal?

Femoral vein
Popliteal vein

28

Where does the small saphenous vein run?

From dorsal venous arch along posterior midline of leg

29

Does the great saphenous vein run infront or behind the medial or lateral malleolus?

Infront of the medial malleolus

30

where does the great saphenous vein drain into?

Femoral vein around the femoral triangle

31

Where does the small saphenous vein drain to?

Popliteal vein posterior to the knee

32

How does blood flow from superficial veins into deep veins?

through perforating veins

33

what helps to push blood back towards the heart?

musculovenous pump

34

What do venous valves ensure?

Unidirectional blood flow against gravity

35

What does incompetent valves cause?

Reverse blood flow into superficial veins = weak and dilated vessels = varicose veins

36

Does the small saphenous vein lie infront or behind the medial or lateral malleolus?

Behind the lateral malleolus

37

What is an end artery?

The only blood supply to a given area of the body (no collaterals)

38

what type of arteries are digital arteries?

End arteries

39

what does untreated occlusion of an end artery result in?

infarction of the area of tissue it supplies

40

What type of local anaesthetic should you not use near end arteries?

Adrenaline-containing local anaesthetic

41

What are the 2 pulse points on the upper limb?

Brachial
Radial

42

What are the 4 pulse points on the lower limb?

Femoral
Popliteal
Posterior tibial
Dorsalis pedis

43

What is iscahemia?

Inadequate oxygenation of cells/ tissues. organ due to an interruption to blood supply (venous or arterial)

44

What can cause reduced arterial perfusion pressure?

Left ventricular failure
Arterial bleed (injury)
Arterial rupture (aneurysm)
Occlusion of lumen (atherosclerosis: PVD)
Arterial spasm
Extrenal compression of arterial supply e.g. tumour

45

What causes increased venous drainage pressure?

Right (or congestive) cardiac failure
DVT
External compression

46

How is DVT caused?

Immobility/ venous failure of any cause ->
Chronic venous insufficiency ->
Deep venous stasis

47

How is skin ulceration caused?

Immobility of any cause/ venous valve failure of any cause ->
Chronic venous insufficiency ->
Superficial microcirculatory deficiencies ->
Skin ulceration

48

How does increased venous pressure lead to venous ulceration?

Increased pressure causes damaged blood vessels in skin
Skin becomes dry, itchy and inflamed
This cannot heal well due to poor blood supply
Begins to breakdown

49

Where is the most common site of venous ulceration?

the gaiter area - medial aspect of distal leg

50

What does the lymphatics generally follow in the limbs?

Veins

51

Name for lymph nodes around the median cubital vein?

Cubital nodes

52

Name for the 2 types of lymph nodes in the arm pit?

Lateral axillary nodes (lower)
Apical axillary nodes (Higher)

53

Name for lymph nodes behind the knee?

Popliteal nodes

54

Name for lymph nodes in the groin?

superficial and deep inguinal nodes

55

What is the standard method of removal of small skin lesions?

Elliptical excision

56

Complications of elliptical incision? (2)

Nerve injury
Bleeding (superficial veins)

57

What are the lines that can be used to map the skin showing the orientation of the collagen fibres and therefore skin tension?

Langer lines

58

What degree angle should be left between the 2 incision of an elliptical excision?

30 degrees

59

At what angle should the scalpel blade cut to the skin when making an elliptical excision?

90 degrees

60

When making an elliptical excision, what should be done once the sides of the ellipse are cut?

Base should be cut through using scissors and pulling ellipse gently with skin hooks

61

How is the wound closed when carrying out an elliptical excision?

with simple interrupted sutures

62

What structure does lymphatics tend to follow in the limbs?

Veins

63

what structure does lymphatics tend to follow in the trunk?

Arteries