Skin Structure and Function 5 - Tutorial Flashcards Preview

2nd Year - Dermatology > Skin Structure and Function 5 - Tutorial > Flashcards

Flashcards in Skin Structure and Function 5 - Tutorial Deck (23):
1

Spongiosis?

Intracellular edema

2

Parakeratosis?

Mode of keratinisation (keratin hardening) characterised by the retention of nuclei in the stratum corneum

3

Abscess?

A swollen area within body tissue containing an accumulation of pus

4

Rete pegs?

Downwards thickening of the epidermis between dermal papillae

5

6 requirements for healthy skin?

Intact physical barrier
Functioning immune system
Functioning vasculature/ adequate supply and drainage (arterial, venous, lymphatics and capillaries)
Normal sensory nerve function
Functioning sweat glands
Adequate nutrition

6

What is slough?
What is it made of?

Necrotic tissue separating from living structure
Mixture of dead cells, polymorphs + bacteria

7

Should slough be removed from a wound?

Yes - has a negative effect on wound healing

8

How is slough removed from a wound?

Chemically or physically by debridement

9

What are the 3 stages of wound healing?

Inflammation
Proliferation
Tissue remodelling

10

What happens during inflammation in wound healing?

Platelets form initial clot and release inflammatory mediators
Leukocytes debride the wound bed by phagocytosing bacteria and scavenging cellular debris
Inflammation gradually decreases as keratinocyte proliferation and new tissue formation becomes predominant

11

What happens during proliferation in wound healing?

Cells divide to re-epitheliase the wound surface
Granulation tissue formation is stimulated
Fibroblasts lay down matrix and contract the wound (fibroplasia)
Epithelial cells develop into new blood vessels (angiogenesis)

12

What happens during tissue remodelling in wound healing?

New tissue is converted into mature scar tissue over a period of months
Fibroblasts lay down collagen to improve the tensile strength of the scar and restore the normal dermal matrix

13

Primary intention of surgical wounds?

An acute wound is closed by approximating wound edges

14

Secondary intention of surgical wounds?

Acute wound is left to heal on its own - takes longer but can produce satisfactory results

15

What is a burn?

Thermal injury to the skin

16

What layers of the skin does a first degree burn affect?
Appearance?

Epidermis only
Erythematous, wet, extremely painful

17

What layers of the skin does a second degree/ partial thickness burn affect?
Appearance?

Epidermis and dermis
Red, blistered, wet/ weeping, painful

18

What layers of the skin does a third degree burn affect?
appearance?

Extends beyond dermis
White or black, charred, dry, numb

19

6 causes of delayed healing of a wound?

Infection
Poor arterial blood supply
Poor nutrition
Impaired venous return
Repeated trauma/ pressure
Systemic disease e.g. diabetes/ anaemia

20

What is another name for a decubitus ulcer?

Pressure sore/ bed sore/ pressure ulcer/ pressure wound

21

Causes of a bed sore? (4)

Prolonged pressure over bony area
Lack of blood flow (2 - 3 hours)
Friction from bedding/ clothing
Sweat, blood, urine, faeces

22

Stages of development of a bed sore?

-Skin unbroken but shows a pink or reddened area (may be tender or itch)
-skin is red, swollen and painful. Blisters may be present. Upper layers of skin begin to die
-sore has broken through skin and wound extends down to deeper layers of tissue. Crater-like ulcers are present Wound is prone to infection
-sore extends beyond the skin and into fat, muscle and bone tissue. Blackened dead tissue called "eschar" ma be seen in deep opened wounds

23

Prevention of Bed Sores? (6)

Identify at risk groups
Use special mattresses
Turn patient regularly
Keep skin clean and hydrated
Regularly assess skin
Good nutrition