SNC2D Chemistry Test #1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in SNC2D Chemistry Test #1 Deck (64):
1

Define: Chemistry

The study of matter, its properties and its changes or transformations.

2

 

Define: Matter

Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.

 

3

What is a pure substance?

A pure substance is one in which all the particles that make up the substance are the same.

4

What is a element?

A pure substance which cannot be broken down further.

5

What are compounds?

Pure substances which contain two or more different elements in fixed proportion.

6

What is a solution?

A solution has the appearance of a compound, but actually contains two or more pure substances – ie salt dissolved in water, kool-aid in water

7

What is a heterogeneous mixture?

A heterogeneous mixture is where two or more pure substances are mixed together and you can still see individual particles – pizza, sand particles.

8

What are physical properties?

This is a characteristic of the substance – colour, hardness, odour, boiling point, melting point, etc.

9

What is a physical change?

A change in the size or form of a substance, which does not change the chemical properties of the substance   - such as dissolving or melting.

10

What are chemical properties?

A characteristic behaviour that occurs when a substance is changed into a new substance
- alkali metals react violently with all halogens.

11

Define chemical change.

When a chemical becomes a new substance – iron rusting becoming iron oxide.

12

What are the two types of materials in a chemical change?

Reactants and products.

13

What are reactants?

The chemicals you had before the chemical change.  (Chemical changes are usually called Reactions) - They are the starting materials.

14

Define products.

What is produced by a chemical change. (The resulting materials in a chemical change.)


 

15

Define ionic bonds.

Ionic bonds are formed between a metal atom and a non-metal atom.
Eg.: NaCl

16

Define covalent bonds.

Covalent bonds are formed between non-metal atoms
Eg.:  C6H12O6

17

Define metallic bonds.

Metallic bonds are formed between metal atoms only.

 

18

Explain what a chemical formula is.

It indicates which elements are present and the number of atoms of each element there are in the compound.

19

Explain how ionic compound bond.

Electrons transfer from metal to non-metal to create stable orbitals, and therefore two oppositely charged ions (electrically charged atoms) which are attracted to each other.

20

What is a chemical bond?

It is the force holding two or more atoms together in a structure (molecule). The atoms form them to get stability by filling their outer (valence) orbital.

21

What are ions?

Ions are atoms which have gained or lost electrons to become stable.

22

Which side of the periodic table are metals found on? Do they gain or lose electrons?

They are found on the right side of the periodic table. They tend to lose electrons.

23

Which side of the periodic table are non-metals found on? Do they tend to gain or lose electrons?

Non-metals tend to gain electrons and are found on the right side of the periodic table.

24

What are the two types of ions?

Cations and anions.

25

What are cations?

They are positive ions.

26

What are anions?

They are negatively charged ions.

27

How do you draw a Lewis Dot diagram?

  1. Write the symbol for the atom, e.g. Na
  2. Observe the number of electrons in the outer orbital of that atom.
  3.  Draw the same number of dots around the symbol as the number of electrons in the outer orbital - group them in groups of two. 

A image thumb
28

What is the chemical formula for Calcium fluoride?

CaF₂.

29

What is the chemical formula for Magnesium sulphide?

MgS

30

What are alloys?

Homogeneous mixtures containing mostly metals but sometimes non metals like carbon.  When metals are mixed in different proportion their physical properties can change dramatically.  (Iron with different amounts of carbon mixed in can be flexible, springy or brittle.)

31

What are 4 properties of the Alkali Metals?

  1. React violently with water or halogens
  2. These elements lose one electron when they react
  3. They react very easily
  4. They are poisonus, but necessary to life. 
  5. They are solid at room temp, malleable, shiny, conductive, ductile, etc.

32

Which group on the periodic table reacts violently with halogens?

Alkali Metals react violently with them.

33

What are 4 properties of Alkaline Earth Metals?

  1. React with water and halogens
  2. Lose electrons when they react (forming cations)
  3. Poisonus, but needed for life.
  4. Solid at room temp, malleable, shiny, ductile, conductive, etc.

34

Name 3 properties of halogens.

  1. All are poisonus.
  2. Found at room temp as solids, liquids, or gases.
  3. Gain electrons forming anions when they react.

35

What are some signs of a chemical change?

  1. Gas forms
  2. Colour change
  3. Heat generated
  4. Changes appearance
  5. New chemical (solid) forms
  6. Precipitate forms
  7. Starting chemical disappears.

36

What state are ionic compounds found in at room temperature? Molecular compounds?

Ionic are solids always, Molecular can be solid, liquid or gas depending on molecule size.

37

Do ionic compounds have odour? molecular compounds?

Ionic don't have this, molecular do.

38

Are ionic compounds solluble in water? Molecular compounds?

Ionic are, molecular are not usually.

39

Are ionic compounds solluble in organic solvent? molecular compounds?

Ionic aren't, molecular are.

40

Are ionic compounds conductive in water? Molecular compounds?

Ionic are, molecular aren't.

41

How hard are ionic compounds? Molecular compounds?

Ionic compounds are hard, molecular compounds typically aren't.

42

A ______________ is a pure substance which is made of two or more elements bonded in fixed proportion.

   compound   

43

2. If one substance can dissolve into another it is considered ______________________.

   soluble   

44

3. ______________ mixtures (solutions) look like pure substances but aren't.

   Homogeneous   

45

4. A ______________ ______________ can only be seen when a chemical change takes place.

   chemical       property   

46

5. A substance can exist as solids, liquids or gases.  These are called the _____________ of matter.

   states   

47

6. You have a material in which you can see particles of various colours and shapes.  This is a ___________________________ mixture.

   heterogeneous   

48

7. An _________ is an atom which has lost or gained electrons.

   ion   

49

8. ________________ are negatively charged ions.

   cations   

50

9. An ionic ____________ is caused when a negative ion and a positive ion are attracted.  They form strong bonds.

   bond   

51

10. A ___________________ ion is one that has more than one atom present in its makeup.

   polyatomic   

52

11. ___________________ or _________________________ compounds share electrons between non-metals, and have weak bonds and can readily combine with other atoms when reacting.

   molecular   ,    covalent   

53

____________ _______________ contain only one kind of particle.  ________________ contain  combinations of different particles in no fixed proportion.

physical properties     mixtures     pure substances    elements    compounds    heterogeneous    homogeneous   chemical    ions

   pure        substances   ,    mixtures   

54

_______________________ are pure substances which appear on the periodic table,  _______________  are combinations of bonded elements in fixed proportion.

   elements   , compounds

55

3. __________________ properties are ones which you can detect with your 5 senses such as colour or hardness.

   physical   

56

4. Atoms which have lost or gained electrons are called ________________.

   ions   

57

1. ___________________ are chemicals you start with before a reaction, ____________________ are the chemicals you end up with after the reaction.

Reactants, products

58

2. A(n) _____________ equation uses the names of chemicals to describe what is happening in a reaction.

word

59

3. A(n) _________________ equation has all the formulas for the chemicals in a reaction, but the numbers of atoms on either side are not the same.

skeleton

60

4. ____________________ are sour tasting chemicals that are water soluble and release H+ ions.  ________________ are bitter tasting chemicals that are soluble in water and slippery to the touch.  They usually but do not necessarily have ______________ ions.

Acids     Bases     OH-

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5. A(n) _________________________ is a chemical which changes colour when it is exposed to either an acid or a base.

indicator

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6. A(n) ____________________________ reaction is one where there are equal amounts of acid and base added together to create water and a ______________________.

neutralization     salt

63

7. The ____________ scale can be used to show how acidic or basic a substance is.  Acidic substances have a _____________ pH number, while basic substances have a ______________ pH number.

pH     low     high

64

8. A __________________ is a neutralization reaction used to determine how much acid or base is in an unknown sample.

titration