Flashcards in Social attribution theory part 2 Deck (26):
Define internal attribution
Results of actions are due to your own efforts
Define external attribution
The outcome of a situation is out of the results of my actions
Define learned helplessness
happens if you learn or conclude that nothing you are able to do can improve your circumstances
What can be an outcome of learned helplessness
What is a critique of learned helplessness, and how to reform it
Does not differentiate between situations where people are able to actually change things, and situations where there is absolutely nothing that can be done.
Reform: People attribute helplessness to a cause
WHEN will helplessness make people feel chronically depressed?
only when it is attributed to intrinsic features of self
What are the five steps of deprssion
1. objective non-contingency
2. percieved non-contingency
4. Expectations of non-contingency
5. Helplessness symptoms
Who will show up on the exam?
Mueller and Dweck, a paper online.
not caused or dependent on anything else
Learned helplessness theory of depression
Limitations of LHTD
Factors other than helplessness must also be present
Cannot explain the exaggerated sense of personal responsibility for negative outcomes
What has research confirmed that negative thinking leads to
Define depressive realism
depressed people are more likely to have a more realistic view of the world
What does the James-Lange theory state?
Every emotion was first and foremost distinct patterns of bodily changes
What does the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion state?
We react to a stimulus and experience the associated emotion at the same time
What did schachter argue about identifying an emotion through physical arousal
Says the physical arousal is ambiguous to different emotions, so we cant conclude a certain emotion given a certain physical arousal. We need cognition to conclusively prove.
What is Schachter and Singer's classic study
To groups, one given adrenaline, one given placebo. Each is told the opposite effects of what the outcome will be. Both groups are then irritated. The amount of agitation was not that different. The hypothesis was that only the misinformed adrenalins would attribute their excitement to an emotion.
What was schachters two-factor theory of emotion
Intensity of Psychological arousal and quality of cognitions about the situation both contribute to emotion
Define attributional bias
Systematic distortions in the sampling or processing of information about the causes of behaviour
Define correspondence bias
Tendency for people to judge or prefer to attribute a person’s actions as a facet the actor’s internal disposition rather than due to affected by situational factors
Define false consensus bias
assumption that other people generally share one’s own personal attitudes and opinions
What are two causes of variability in correspondence bias
Context and cultural variation
Go back and look over the general model typology for the process leading to correspondence bias
Define self-serving attributional biases
Naive scientist metaphor
holds that humans think and act with dispassionate rationality whilst engaging in detailed and nuanced thought processes for both complex and routine actions. In this way, humans were thought to think like scientists, albeit naïve ones, measuring and analyzing the world around them.