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Flashcards in Sociology 1 Deck (155)
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1
Q

Self-Presentation

  • Describe “Impression Management
    • What does this concept imply?
A
  • The concept of “presenting oneself”*
  • implies that the representation of ourselves to others is not always genuine
  • individuals attempt to shape, manipulate, and manage how they are perceived by others*
2
Q
  • Define “Promiscuity
A

Practice of having frequent, casual sex

with different partners

3
Q

Deviace

  • Strain Theory

Define “REBELLION

  • How does it differ from “Retreatism?”
  • What’s a recent modern example of this?
A
  • THINK: HUNGER GAMES*
  • REJECTS both the GOALS and MEANS (same as Retreatism)

_…but goes a step further to PROMOTE A COUNTER CULTURE to support their actions!_

Example:

  • Tea-Party activists voted in favor of shutting down the U.S. Govt.
    • b/c they disagreed with the proposed budget
4
Q

Collective Behavior

  • Define “Groups
    • What is the difference between a primary and secondary group?
    • Give examples of both
A
  • two or more people interacting and identifying with e/o

PRIMARY groups

  • Made up of a SMALL group of members
  • Share an intense, intimate bond
    • …that is lasting and INFLUENTIAL

Example:

THE FAMILY

SECONDARY groups

  • are made up of a LARGE, IMPERSONAL group of members
  • exist for a SHORT period of time

Example:

Students in a course at BYU

5
Q
  • Social Adherence
    • What are the 2 kinds of CONFORMITY?
A

INTERNALIZATION

&

IDENTIFICATION

6
Q

Define Socialization

A
  • The basic concept of human development in sociology
  • a lifelong process, beginning in infancy, by which an individual acquires the habits, norms, and beliefs of society
  • also includes the ways in which the society itself disseminates (or passes to new members or generations) those skills, knowledge, and behaviors considered “acceptable” to society, or necessary for inclusion into society
7
Q
  • Define “Monogamy”
A
  • One spouse per person
  • is the norm in many countries
8
Q

Theories of Emotional Expression

  • Describe the APPRAISAL Model
    • Hows does it compare to the Basic Model?
A

Very similar to basic model

  • Both suggest a biologically programmed emotional response
  • Appraisal model goes further to suggest that there are cognitive appraisals of an event*
  • …that RESULT in emotional response*
9
Q
  • Which brain region/s are most closely associated with aggression?
A
  • The Hypothalamus, and related structures of the limbic system
10
Q

Game Theory

  • Game Types

Describe the Zero-Sum Game

A

involves a situation in which one’s GAIN

is EXACTLY BALANCED

…by the LOSSES of others

11
Q

What are “Agents of Socialization?”

Name the 4 that the MCAT wants you to know

A
  • Institutions or groups in society that play a definitive role in socialization
  1. The Family is the MOST INFLUENTIAL
  2. Mass Media
  3. Peers
  4. Workplace
  • There can be other agents, like religion, school, govt. etc, but these are the ones to remember
12
Q

Social Norms/Define “Anomie.” What is it also used to describe?

A

=Normlessness. A state of instability due to lack of social norms, or the breakdown of social standards or values. Also used to describe a breakdown in the normal social bonding between the individual and society.

13
Q
  • Social Perception Biases
    • Self-Serving Bias
      • describe and give an example
A
  • We often try to enhance our self-esteem by using a self-serving bias
  • Focus on our strengths while downplaying our weaknesses and any negative feedback we may receive
  • Ex: believing we’re more intelligent than we actually are, and blaming our personal failures on others
14
Q

Define Sanctions

A

are consequences, formal or informal, assigned by members of society as a result of norm violation.

15
Q

Define Mores. Give an example of breaking a more

A
  • are norms that have great moral significance and are WIDELY OBSERVED by members of society.
  • Ex: Driving while intoxicated is an example of a violation of a more.
16
Q

Define Primary Socialization

A
  • is the most influential type of socialization.
  • it is the most intense and has the longest-term effects
  • The family is considered to be the agent of primary socialization (parents & siblings and/or spouse and children)
17
Q
  • Mate Choice
    • Name the “Five Mechanisms for Choosing a Mate”
    • Hint: “P(ee)PIGS!”
A
  1. (Direct) Phenotypic benefits
  2. Sensory bias
  3. Fisherian Runway Hypothesis
  4. Indicator Traits
  5. Genetic Compatibility
18
Q
  • Elements of Social Interaction
    • Define “Role”
A
  • A set of expectations and norms that define how a person of a given status should behave
19
Q

In sociology, Deviance is shaped by what?

A

Society

20
Q
  • Attributional Processes
    • Describe Attribute Substitution
A
  • When faced with a complex mental task or judgment, we tend to substitute the actual scenario or problem with a more simple scenario or problem
    • were usually unaware we’ve done so
  • This includes mental substitutions the brain makes automatically- such as the visual shortcuts that cause us to misinterpret an optical illusion
21
Q
  • Verbal vs. Non-verbal communication
    • What is required for something to be considered “verbal” communication?
    • Give examples
A
  • Language of any kid=Verbal
  • Ex:
    • speaking
    • sign language
    • braille
      • (doesnt matter if it’s silent communication)
22
Q
  • Social Adherence
    • Conformity: when and why does it occur? What does it result from?
A
  • Occurs when an indiv alters their behaviors or attitudes in order to “fit in” a social context.
  • Conformity is considered to result from the passive influence that others have on out own behaviors an attidues
23
Q

Describe “Collective Behavior.” It is neither ___ nor ___ . What is it often thought as?

A

social processes or behavior by group-like entities (called “collectives”) that do NOT reflect stable social culture, but emerge in a spontaneous way. It is neither normative nor deviant behavior. Often thought as a third class of behavior that exists when social norms are absent, unclear, or in conflict w/ e/o.

24
Q

Peer Pressure

  • Asch Conformity Study
    • Describe what happened
A
  • Students were put in groups, were told it was a study of visual perception
  • All but one of the individuals in the group was told it was their job to put pressure on the remaining person
  • They were given 2 cards with lines on them

It was easy to determine that the lines on the second card was the correct choice

  • At the beginning of the experiment, everyone made correct matches
    • but then they started answering incorrectly
    • the uninformed student started feeling uncomfortable, and started answering incorrectly

just so he could fit in

25
Q
  • Describe “discrimination”
A
  • is the biased behavior that occurs toward a person or group BECAUSE OF prejudice
26
Q

Game Theory

  • Game Types
    • Describe a Non-Zero Sum Game
A
  • involves situations in which one’s GAIN is NOT balanced by the LOSSES of others

example:

You and 5 friends play poker, players given $20 in chips.

If you WIN $20, that means that 4 OTHER PEOPLE all lost $20 each

27
Q
  • Groupthink
    • Irving Janis’ 8 Symptoms of Groupthink
      • Define “Illusion of Unanimity”
A

Group members believe that the view of the majority is held by ALL in the group

28
Q
  • Game Theory
    • What type of game does the Prisoner Dilemma represent?
A
  • a Simultaneous Game
    • players either act at the same time or in ways that make it impossible to know how the other player acted
29
Q
  • Describe “Prejudice”
A
  • is a preconceived opinion or judgment made WITHOUT actual knowledge or experience
30
Q

Deviace/Strain Theory/Define “Retreatism.” What do we usually refer to these individuals as?

A

When an individual rejects BOTH societies’ goals as well as the conventional means to achieve those goals. Often we refer to these people as “societal dropouts”

31
Q
  • Describe the theory of “Inclusive Fitness
A

Theory in evolutionary biology in which an organism’s genetic success is believed to be derived from:

  1. cooperation and
  2. altruistic behaviour

THINK: Prarie Dogs or Meerkats warning others of danger

32
Q
  • Social Perception Biases
    • Define the Primacy Effect
A
  • is experienced when we recall the first few items in a list more readily than others
33
Q
  • Define “Polygamy”
    • where are places where it is the norm?
    • What are its two forms?
A
  • two or more spouses per person
  • is the norm in many low income countries
  • Two forms:
    • Polygyny
    • Polyandry
34
Q
  • Groupthink
    • Irving Janis’ 8 Symptoms of Groupthink
      • Define “Illusion of Morality”
A

the group setting fosters a belief that the groups actions are above moral reproach

35
Q

Define Prejudice

A

a preconceived belief or judgment about a person or group developed

PRIOR TO,(or NOT based upon)

actual experience or knowledge

36
Q
  • What are some (4) factoids to remember about aggression?
A
  • Theats prior to attack are common in humans and animals
  • Males are MORE AGGRESSIVE than females
    • Testosterone levels positively correlate with aggression in both sexes
  • Competition for limited food and resources is often necessary for survival, and reproduction often involves competition for females
    • BOTH lead to aggression being evolutionarily favored
  • ​Aggression is more likely if person is experiencing heightened NEGATIVE emotion
37
Q

Perspectives on Deviance: Describe Differential Association Theory

A

Through interaction with others, individuals learn the values, attitudes, and techniques for deviant behavior (especially criminal behavior)

38
Q
  • Processes related to stereotypes
    • Stereotype Threat
A
  • Anxiety experienced by the target of a negative stereotype that they will behave in accordance with the negative stereotype placed upon them
39
Q
  • Cultural relativism encourages ___ and ___, which ethnocentrism often creates ___, and the notion that there are cultural “____s.”
A
  • First, ethnocentrism often creates conflict, whereas
  • cultural relativism encourages openness and inclusion. Also, ethnocentrism reinforces the notion that there are cultural universals – that there are “right” ways to go about our social lives
40
Q

Define Social Control

A

Societal or Political mechanisms used to regulate the behavior of individuals to ensure conformity and compliance to the established rules of that group

41
Q
  • Groupthink
    • Irving Janis’ 8 Symptoms of Groupthink
      • Define “Self-Censorship”
A

Individuals who may doubt the group do not voice their concerns in the group setting

42
Q
  • Social Groups
    • Group Size
      • Define “Dyad”
        • What causes a dyad to dissolve?
A
  • smallest possible group
  • tend to be emotional and unstable
  • Is dissolved if so much as ONE PERSON leaves the group
    • less likely to survive
43
Q

Perspectives on Deviance: Define “Functional Theorists.” What do they say wrt deviance?

A

Say that Deviance is not necessarily negative, and is in fact necessary for social order. Deviance helps clarify the boundaries of social norms, and can play a positive role in initiating social change.

44
Q
  • Define “foraging behavior”
A
  • searching for wild food resources
    • plays important role in an animal’s ability to survive and reproduce
45
Q
  • Processes related to stereotypes
    • self-fulfilling prophecy
A
  • a false, yet strongly held belief or prediction about an individual or group that is accepted as true
  • the false belief elicits behaviors that match the belief, eventually causing what was originally false to become true (or perceived as being true)
  • Ex: Mary gets good grades, but is told she is “remedial.” This negatively affects her study habits, and she eventually starts scoring below other students
    • This confirms her teacher’s belief that she is “remedial”
46
Q
  • Social Groups
    • In groups vs. Out Groups
      • Give examples of each
    • Think of High School cliques!
A
  • In Groups are social groups that members feel an affinity for, or loyalty to and respect for
    • Ex: alumni associations, your own political parties, your own religious affiliation, Uncle Duane & UVU Scholarship’s ball, etc/
  • Out groups are social groups that individuals feel competition or conflict towards
    • race, ethnicity, (opposing) political parties, opposing religions, etc.
47
Q

Define Taboos and give an example

A
  • are THE MOST morally significant violation of norms, and the mere thought of violation brings about a strong, negative response from members of society.
  • Ex: forcing others to have sex.
48
Q
  • Game Theory
    • Game Types
      • Sequential Move Game
A
  • moves are made in sequence with later players having some knowledge of the player’s previous actions
49
Q

Deviance/Labeling Theory

A

Deviance and conformity result from how others RESPOND to another person’s actions, rather than what these others actually do. In short, “Deviance is relative”

50
Q
  • Game Theory
    • Hawk-Dove Theory
    • What ultimately determines the WINNING STRATEGY?
      • Describe who gets resources b/t:
        • hawk/dove
        • hawk/hawk
        • dove/hawk
        • dove/dove
A
  • WINNING STRATEGY ultimately determined by the relative proportions of hawks and doves in the population

this ratio shifts
Over time, it is expected the ratio will stabilize due to cost of losing fights and value of the resource in question.

  • Hawk/Dove
    • hawk wins the resource
  • Hawk/Hawk
    • only wins resource 1/2 the time
  • Dove/Hawk
    • Dove loses the resource
  • Dove/Dove
    • the resource will be shared
      *
51
Q
  • Role
    • Role Exit
A
  • Refers to the process by which people disengage from important social roles
  • Ex: Ex-nuns, Ex-doctors, Ex-husbands, Ex-bishops, etc.
52
Q

Social Norms/Anomie/what do people living in a state of anomie experience?

A

A lack of purpose; they feel a sense of futility because accepted goals or ideals are unclear.

53
Q
  • Social Adherence
    • Conformity/Internalization=?
A

the process by which an individual accepts as his or her own a set of norms established by people or groups which are influential to that individual

54
Q

If you choose not to follow societal norms, what are you subect to?

A

Sanctions. Sanctions vary depending on the norms broken.

55
Q

Organizations

  • Bureaucracy
    • Name the 7 Characteristics of a Bureaucracy
    • Hint: “FOME PEN”
A
  1. Formal HEIRARCHAL Structure
  2. Organization by Rules
  3. Management by Rules
  4. Either an “UP-focused” or “IN-focused” mission
  5. Purposely IMpersonal
  6. Employment based on technical QUALIFICATIONS
  7. NUMBER of management/professional staff is _always increasing_
56
Q

Define Folkways and give an example

A
  • are rules for casual social interaction.
  • Ex: we all face the front when we get in an elevator. Violating a folkway would be getting in an elevator and facing the back.
57
Q

Deviace/Strain Theory/Define “Innovation” and give an example

A

individuals reject conventional means in order to achieve a culturally approved goal. Ex: Walter White sells meth to support his family

58
Q
  • Game Theory
    • Classic Games
      • Describe the “Hawk-Dove” Game
A
  • describes a situation in which individuals competing for resources take on different strategies
  • The Hawk
    • will open competition aggresively
      • this aggression will escalate into a fight until either the hawk wins or becomes injured
  • The Dove
    • may display aggression initially, but
      • will run away from actual conflict, and
      • will share the resource…
    • IF (!!!) there is noescalation in aggression
59
Q

Norms

A

are the rules and expectations by which members of society are EXPECTED TO FOLLOW

60
Q

What are the 3 processes that CONTRIBUTE to prejudice?

A

Power, Prestige, & Class

61
Q
  • Attributional Processes
    • Role of Culture in Attribution
A
  • one’s culture will impact the kinds of attributions one is most likely to make
  • for example, if a culture socializes its members to consider a neighboring society as enemies, members of that culture will almost universally attribute behavior observed in their neighbors as negative and dispositional
62
Q
  • Social Perception Biases
    • Confirmation Bias
      • describe & give an example
A
  • We tend to overestimate how “right” we are
  • Experience confirmation bias when we seek out and attending to information that agrees to your own perspective while ignoring information that would counter our beliefs
  • Ex: You think people with southern accents are more polite than those without, and you point out examples where southerners are polite but ignore times when southerners are rude or non-southerners are polite
63
Q
  • Define “cultural relativism”
  • Compare it to ethnocentrism
A
  • judging another culture by it’s own standards
  • ethnocentrism is judging anothers culture based on values of one’s own culture
    *
64
Q
  • Discrimination
    • When you see “Discrimination,” think…?
A
  • Discrimination=BEHAVIOR!!! (more than just attitude)
65
Q
  • Groupthink
    • Irving Janis’ 8 Symptoms of Groupthink
      • Define “Mindguards”
A

group members shield the group from any dissenting information

66
Q

Social Adherence

  • COMPLIANCE occurs when=?
    • What is it in response to?
    • What does/doesnt it require?
A

COMPLIANCE

  • Occurs when a person changes their behavior because they are ASKED to do so by another
    • …either EXPLICITLY or IMPLICITLY
  • This is in a response to an active attempt to ALTER one’s behavior*
  • it DOESNT necessarily require changes in thought or attitudes ABOUT the behavior*
67
Q
  • Perspectives on Bureaucracy
    • Describe the Iron Law of Oligarchy
A
  • Says that any large organization would develop a system of governance in which many people come under the control of a few
68
Q

Collective Behavior: Differentiate b/t crowds and masses

A

A) Crowds: collections of people who find themselves in the same place and at the same time and are TEMPORARY. B) Masses are groups of people that aren’t necessarily in e/o’s physical presence, but share in the same concerns or beliefs. They are temporary as well.

69
Q
  • Define “Polygyny”
A
  • marriage between one man and two or more women
  • by far the most common form of polygamy
70
Q
  • Social Behavior
    • Describe the “Game Theory”
A
  • a perspective that views social or group behavior as a game with players, winners, losers, prizes, and other outcomes.
  • It is assumed that individuals or groups make decisions based on strategy, with the ULTIMATE goal being to WIN!
    • “You play to WIN the GAME!”
71
Q
  • Attributional Processes
    • Dispositional attributions tend to be more consitent with what? What about Situational attributions?
A
  • Dispositional attributions tend to be more consistent with the concept of an internal locus of control, and
  • situational attributions are more consistent with the concept of an external locus of control
72
Q

Collective Behavior/Define “Collectives” or Collective behavior. It is often ____. Collective Behavior occurs in both ___s and ___s.

A

=an UNPLANNED activity among a large number of people that may result in social change. It is often controversial. CB occurs in both crowds and masses

73
Q

Bystander Effect

A

when help to a victim is withheld in situations in which there are OTHER PEOPLE AROUND

74
Q
  • Social Adherence
    • Obedience is what?
A

a change in behavior as function of a command from some authority figure who wants them to ∆ their behavior. Underlying attitude of person about that behavior may or may not be affected.

75
Q
  • Self-presentation & Interacting with others
    • Define “Self-Presentation”
A
  • How we present or display ourselves to society
76
Q
  • Discrimination
    • When you see “Prejudice,” think…
A

Prejudice=ATTUTIDE!!! (not actions)

77
Q

Describe Deindividuation. What is it also called? What good and bad things can it lead to?

A
  • involves a loss of one’s sense of themselves and personal responsibility when someone is part of a larger group.
  • Aka “Mob Mentality.”
  • Can lead to: violence and destruction of property (bad) or prosocial behavior (think of UVU President’s Ball…people making huge donations towards the group theyre a part of).
78
Q

Attachment Types

Describe AMBIVALENT Attachment

  • During childhood
    • How is the caregiver in responding to needs?
    • How does the child react when the caregiver leaves?
      • When they return?
  • ​​During Adulthood
    • How are they in relationships?
      • What things do they fear most in relationships?
A
  • Childhood
    • caregiver is inconsistent in response to child’s needs, OR
    • caregiver is inconsistent in availability to the child
    • child is visibly upset when caregiver leaves
    • child is NOT(!!) comforted when caregiver returns
    • may avoid or refuse comfort from parent
  • Adulthood
    • Reluctant to form relationships
    • worry their partner does not reciprocate their love
    • devastated by breakups
79
Q
  • Social Groups
    • Group Size
      • Large Group
        • What things increase with size? What things decrease?
A
  • As group size increases, stability and longevity also increase….
  • BUT intimacy, loyalty, bonding, sense of responsibility, level of individual contribution, and concensus all decline
  • Most stable group size
80
Q

Define “Groupthink,” and what does it often (generally) result it?

A
  • Tendency of groups to make decisions that are incorrect or illogical based on a desire to maximize group consensus and minimize group conflict.
  • Often results in group ignoring conflicting information or evidence, or dismissing it w/o consideration.
81
Q
  • Theories of Emotional Expression
    • Describe the Psychological Construction Model
A
  • does recognize that some emotional responses might appear to be universal
  • Also takes into account a number of psychological factors, like
    • previous experience,
    • mood, and
    • language
  • ….to account for the wide array of emotional responses we exhibit regularly
82
Q
  • Social Perception Bias
    • Define the Just-World Hypothesis
A
  • is the tendency to believe that people get what they deserve
  • Ex: Poor people are poor because theyre lazy, Rich people are reaping rewards of a lifetime’s hard work, etc.
83
Q
  • Perspectives on Bureaucracy
    • Describe “McDonaldization”
A
  • Describes the tendency of large organizations to standardize operations (even when such standardization may be nonsensical in certain situations), in order to achieve consistency and efficiency
  • Ex: Think of your job at DirecTV and all the stupid crap you were forced to do for no apparent reason
84
Q
  • Attachment Types
    • Describe DISORGANIZED Attachment
      • Describe durng childhood and as an adult
      • lack of attachment can be described by disorganized emotional behavior, such as approaching the caregiver, but with the back turned
A

Lack of attachment can be expressed by disorganized emotional behavior, such as approaching the caregiver, but with the back turned

  • Childhood
    • caregiver is inconsistent, erratic, or maybe abusive
    • child displays a mix of unclear attachment behaviors
    • child often appears confused or dazed in presence of caregiver
    • child may assume a caregiver role THEMSELVES at an early age
  • Adulthood
    • various negative social outcomes
      • similar to adults who experience avoidant attachment as a child
    • In late childhood or early adolescence child often assumes a caregiver role themselves over their erratic parent
85
Q
  • Attachment Types
    • Secure Attachment
      • Describe during childhood and as an adult
A
  • is the MOST DEVELOPMENTALLY HEALTHY form of attachment
  • Childhood
    • constant caregiver is present who is attentive and responsive to the child’s needs
    • child prefers caregiver over strangers
      • but CAN be comforted by strangers
    • child is visibly upset when caregiver leaves
    • child is visibly comforted when caregiver returns
    • child seeks comfort of caregiver when frightened
  • Adult
    • trusting, lasting relationships
    • high self-esteem
    • comfortable sharing feelings
    • seek social support
86
Q
  • Interpersonal attraction
    • is multi-faceted. Why?
A
  • We “like” people because of similarities, complementary differences, reciprocity, physical appearance, proximity, etc.
  • Many things go into interpersonal attraction
87
Q
  • Groupthink
    • Irving Janis’ 8 Symptoms of Groupthink
      • Define “(Out-group) Stereotyping”
A

Group members view those OUTSIDE of the group as biased, ignorant, and/or morally inferior

88
Q

Peer Pressure

A

Social influence exerted on an individual by a peer or peer group.

89
Q
  • Groupthink
    • Irving Janis’ 8 Symptoms of Groupthink=?
A
  1. Illusion of Invulnerability.
  2. Illusion of Morality.
  3. Rationalization.
  4. Stereotyping.
  5. Self-Censorship.
  6. Illusion of Unanimity.
  7. Pressure to conform.
  8. Mindguards.
90
Q
  • Self-Presentation
    • Differentiate between Front Stage Self and Back Stage Self…aka?
      • give examples
    • Hint: Think of social interaction as a theatrical performance
A
  • aka “Dramaturgical Approach”
  • Front Stage
    • region where actors are performing in front of an audience
      • Ex: doctor’s office waiting room, front of house at your favorite restaurant
  • Back Stage
    • Region where actors are regroup, rehearsing, rejuvenating
    • the audience is prohibited from this region
      • Ex: Doctor’s private office, kitchen of your favorite restaurant
91
Q

Define Secondary Socialization

A
  • includes a wide variety of agents
  • those are influential, but not nearly as much as primary socialization.
  • Ex: peer groups, education, mass media, religion, etc.
92
Q
  • Verbal vs. Non-verbal communication
    • Describe NON-VERBAL communication
      • What is a unique form of non-verbal communication?
A

Eye contact, gestures, body language, etc.

  • Tone of Voice is non-verbal
    • even though it IS part of speaking
93
Q
  • Social Thinking
    • Attributional processes
      • DIspositional attributions
A
  • deal with explaining behavior as a function of an individual’s personality, or disposition
94
Q

Game Theory

  • Game Types
    • Describe a ONE-SHOT Game
A
  • The stakes are HIGH!*
  • …but carry NO further repercussions*
95
Q
  • Role
    • Role Conflict
      • define & give an example
A
  • Occurs when there is a clash between the roles associated with two or more statuses
  • Ex: A married student with children working full-time during midterms (student vs employee vs father)
96
Q

Social Groups

  • Group Size
    • Describe a Triad
      • How does it compare to a dyad in stability?
      • How are disputes resolved?
      • How likely is it to survive?
A
  • Addition of one person adds stability
  • disputes often mediated by the third member
  • more likely to survive
    • even if it must become a dyad to do so
97
Q

Agents of Socialization/Government/What effect does party affiliation have?

A

Party affiliation is likely a factor of socialization during childhood and adolescence. Most people share their parent’s party ID and rarely deviate from it

98
Q
  • Discrimination
    • Compare Feminist Theory vs Feminism
A

Feminism

  • is a MOVEMENT

Feminist Theory

  • Is an area of STUDY
  • explores psychological explanations for the:
    • discrimination
    • inequality
    • objectification

experienced by women due to their gender

99
Q
  • Social Groups
    • Primary Group
      • define & give an example
A
  • long-lasting, close interactions, tight bonds, unlikely to dissolve
  • Key example: LA FAMILIA
100
Q
  • Social Perception Bias
    • Describe Stereotyping
      • What are the MCATs 2 most prominent types of stereotyping?
A
  • involves establishing overgeneralized beliefs and expectations of a given group that may or may not match reality
  • Racial & Gender stereotypes are most prominent stereotypes for MCAT
101
Q

Game Theory

  • Classic Games
    • What is the “Prisoner Dilemma?”
      • Describe the classic example
      • What are the options both prisoners have?
      • How are the interests of the 2 prisoners best served?
A

Is of a game where 2 individuals might not cooperate even if doing so would serve BOTH of their (own personal) interests

Example:

  • Involves two prisoners who are isolated from one another
  • The authorities do not have sufficient evidence to convict BOTH of the most serious charge, and they plan to charge each with lesser charges

Each prisoner is given the opportunity to:

  1. BETRAY the other, by:
    • offering testimony, or
  2. COOPERATE with each other
    • by remaining silent
  • If the BOTH betray EACH OTHER:
    • Each of them will be charged with the more serious crime and will spend more time in jail
  • If ONE prisoner betrays the OTHER:
    • then s/he will be set free
    • while the other will serve even more time in jail
  • If BOTH COOPERATE:
    • Both will be charged with the lesser crime and both will spend significantly LESS time in jail
  • While betrayal might lead to reward for one individual, it could also lead to a MORE SEVERE punishment if both individuals betrayed the other…

***and each individual would LIKELY BETRAY THE OTHER in pursuit of their own self-interest***

Ultimately, the interests of *BOTH* would be BEST served *by remaining united in their silence*

102
Q
A
103
Q
  • Attributional Processes
    • Describe Social Perception
      • why are our social perceptions usually false?
A
  • How we perceive other individuals or groups, form impressions of them, and make judgments about them
  • our social perceptions are often INACCURATE due to various forms of bias
104
Q
  • Peer Pressure
    • What is a “peer?”
A

A peer is another individual that is of the same age, status, or other measure of equality, as oneself.

105
Q

Group Polarization=?

A
  • Tendency of groups to make decisions that are more extreme (on either end of the continuum) then would individual members of that group acting alone.
  • Ex: “KILL THE BEAST! **BOOM** KILL THE BEAST!”
106
Q
  • Elements of Social Interaction
    • Define “Status”
      • what does the concept of status inherently suggest?
        • what are the 2 types of statuses
A
  • =one’s heirarchal position in society
  • suggests inequality
  • 2 Types
    • Achieved
      • status earned through personal effort or achievement
    • Ascribed
      • status assigned at birth or assumed involuntarily based on factor’s outside of one’s control
107
Q

Mate Choice

  • Five Mechanisms for choosing a mate
    • Describe the Fisherian Runaway Hypothesis
A

​THINK: PEACOCKS

  • Some traits are SO strongly preferred by females of certain species…
  • that they will mate ONLY with those males possessing the strongest expression OF that trait

Ex: Elaborate mating dances, having a huge dick, peacocks with large, colorful feathers, etc.

108
Q
  • Social Perception Biases
    • Define the Recency Effect
A
  • When when we recall the MOST RECENT items from a list BETTER than others
109
Q
  • Social Perception Bias
    • Descibe Reliance on Central Traits
      • ​Give an example
A
  • Describes how our perceptions of others are affected by focusing on characteristics that are of particular interest to US

Ex:

You value trustworthiness, and think highly of someone who is very trustworthy

110
Q

Social Thinking

  • Define “Attribution
    • How accurate are our attributions?
A

the tendency to infer that behavior we observe in others can be attributed to specific causes

  • Generally, these are assumptions we create ourselves without actual knowledge OF THE root causes
    • therefore, our attributions are often inaccurate
111
Q

Groupthink

  • Irving Janis’ 8 Symptoms of Groupthink
    • Define “Illusion of Invulnerability”
      • What can it lead to?
A
  • the group setting fosters a heightened sense of optimism

..​that can lead to RISKIER behaviors

112
Q
  • Attachment Types
    • Avoidant Attachment
      • Describe during childhood and as an adult
A
  • Childhood
    • caregiver is absent or unresponsive to child’s needs
    • child show NO PREFERENCE for caregiver over strangers
    • avoids caregiver
      • especially after a period of absence
    • does not seek attention or comfort from caregiver
  • Adulthood
    • Problems with intimate relationships
    • do not invest emotionally in relationships
    • unwilling to share their feelings
    • promiscuous sexual relations common
113
Q

Social Control

  • Define FORMAL Social Control
A

Laws, Sanctions, or Regulations

enforced by an AUTHORITY figure

(often the government)

114
Q

What is Social Facilitation?

A

Individuals perform BETTER on SIMPLE tasks when they are being observed by others

However, individuals will usually perform POORLY on more DIFFICULT tasks when being observed by others

115
Q

Prejudice can be exacerbated by ____

A
  • Emotion
    • it tends to inhibit reasoned judgment based on facts (which is exactly what prejudice is! Judgments prior to experience or knowledge)
116
Q

How do Power, Prestige, & Class contribute to Prejudice?

A
  • Those who are powerful, prestigious, of a high class, and in the majority have stereotypical views of minorities
  • We tend to be negatively prejudiced against those different from us and positively exaggerate the virtues of those similar to us
117
Q
  • Attributional Processes
    • Role of Culture in Attribution
      • Collectivist vs Individualistic Cultures
A
  • Western Cultures=most individualistic
    • more prone to the Fundamental Attribution Error (making dispositional attributions)
  • Non-Western Cultures=more collectivist
    • more prone to make situational attributions
118
Q

Name the 2 types of processes related to STEREOTYPES

A
  1. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
  2. Stereotype Threat
119
Q

Define “Deviance”

A

=the recognized violation of cultural norms. Is the subject of sociological study and thought.

120
Q
  • Attributional processes
    • Situational Attributions: define and give an example
A
  • explain an individual’s behavior as a function of the context and circumstances in which the behavior occurred.
  • Ex: for example, if you see someone run a red light and believe that doing so was a representation of a person’s general disregard for the safety of others, then you have made a dispositional attribution. However, if you were to wonder whether the person was rushing to the hospital just down the street to get the passenger to the emergency room, you’d be making a situational attribution
121
Q

What does “Cognitive Prejudice” refer to?

  • What is an example of cognition applied to prejudice?
A

_Refers to what people BELIEVE is true_

  • Refers to what a person ACTUALLY thinks or believes about the target of the prejudice
  • opposed to what they FEEL (emotion)*
  • or DO (behavior)*

Stereotypes are an example of cognition applied to prejudice

  • What they think or believe about the group influences what they feel or do towards them
122
Q

Define “Stigma”

A

extreme dislike or negavitity toward a person or group (or some characteristic OF that person or group) based on perceived deviance from social norms. Ex: missionaries from Utah Valley who come home early get the cold shoulder at church.

123
Q
  • Discrimination
    • Compare Individual vs Institutional discrimination. Give examples
A
  • Individual
    • person to person
    • Ex: Manager decides not to hire an applicant because of skin color
  • Institutional
    • institution to people
    • Ex: Jim Crow laws
124
Q
  • Groupthink
    • Irving Janis’ 8 Symptoms of Groupthink
      • Define “Pressure to conform”
A

Individuals in the group feel pressure not to voice disagreements with the group

125
Q
  • Social Adherence
    • Compare & Contrast b/t confomity, compliance, and obedience.
    • What 1 thing do they all have in common, and what distinguishes them?
A

All 3 represent changes in behavior/attitude as a function of social influence; however, they are distinguished by the NATURE of this behavioral ∆

126
Q
  • Attributional Processes
    • Define Fundamental Attribution Error
A
  • We are generally more likely to make dispositional attributions about UNDESIRABLE behavior observed in OTHERS, than we are to make situational attributions about that same behavior
127
Q
  • Social Adherence
    • Conformity
      • Identification=? Who do people tend to “identify” with?
A

the process of incorporating the characteristics of a parent or other influential person by adopting their appearance, attitudes, and behavior. People tend to identify with whom they perceive to be most similar to themselves.

128
Q

Deviance/Strain Theory/What are the 4 types of deviance (non-conformity) that emerge as individuals attempt (or not) to achieve the “American Dream?”

A

1) Innovation. 2) Ritualism. 3) Retreatism. 4) Rebellion.

129
Q
  • Role
    • Role strain
      • define & give an example
A
  • Refers to stresses among the roles associated with a particular status
  • Ex: a parent may feel closer to one of their children than to the other (ouch!), but they must put those feelings aside
130
Q

Deviace/Strain Theory/ Define “Ritualism.” What does it result from?

A

Results from the overall rejection of a cultural goal, but rigidly adhering to the rules nonetheless

131
Q

Peer Pressure

  • What do the findings from the Asch Conformity Study suggest?
  • “WHICH LINE IS LONGER?”*
A

We may be willing to question our own beliefs and judgments in the face of disagreement with others

132
Q
  • Theories of Emotional Expression
    • Describe the Social Construction Model
A
  • argues that emotional responses are NOT** biologically predetermined (opposite of Basic Model), and that all emotional expression is based **ENTIRELY on experience and the context in which the emotion takes place
133
Q

Agents of Socialization/School/What is “Hidden Curriculum?”

A

An unofficial curriculum of social norms taught to students at school

134
Q

Deviance/Strain Theory claims that society does what wrt deviant behavior?

A

It Promotes it!

135
Q

Social Control

  • Describe INFORMAL Social Control
  • Includes “expressions of…?”*
  • Give some examples of Informal Social Control*
A

INFORMAL ​SOCIAL CONTROL

is socialization, or any other means used to:

  • encourage adherence to societal norms and values for acceptable behavior

This includes EXPRESSIONS OF DISAPPROVAL,

Be they…

  • Verbal
  • Non-verbal, or
  • Written

Examples:

  • shame
  • ridicule
  • sarcasm
  • criticism
136
Q
  • Define “Social Support”
    • What is a “support network?”
A
  • Support provided to an individual by a social group or network.
  • Support network usually consists of family, friends, or coworkers who provide financial support, emotional support, advice, etc.
137
Q

Define “Ethnocentrism”

A

judging another culture based solely on the values of one’s own culture

138
Q
  • Groupthink
    • Irving Janis’ 8 Symptoms of Groupthink
      • Define “Rationalization”
A

group members do not question assumptions that are being made and ignore warnings that might deter them from the present course of action

139
Q
  • Social Interaction
    • Define “Organizations
      • give some examples
A
  • Group entities organized and define by a specific purpose
    • companies, non-profit groups, sports teams, etc.
140
Q

Social Facilitation

  • Yerkes-Dodson Law of Social Facilitation suggests what?
A

OPTIMAL PERFORMANCE

is associated with an intermediate arousal

141
Q
  • Social Perception Bias
    • Describe the Halo Effect
A
  • is a bias by which a positive appraisal in one area will automatically generate positive appraisals in other areas
  • Ex: The celebrity you love does something bad and you view it more favorably (e.g. Patrick Roy’s domestic violence)
142
Q
  • Game Theory
    • Game Types
      • Simultaneous Move Game
A
  • players either act at the same time or in ways that make it impossible to know how the other player acted
143
Q
  • Define “Polyandry”
A
  • marriage between one woman and two or more men
  • A (VERY RARE) form of Polygamy
144
Q

Define SOCIAL LOAFING

A
  • Groups effect the amount of effort that people are willing to exert to accomplish a common task
  • People often exert LESS effort because there are so many OTHER people working on completing the task
145
Q
  • Social Groups:
    • Secondary Group
      • Define & give an example
      • What’s a good way to distinguish b/t a primary and secondary group?
A
  • Short-lived, superficial, weak bonds, dissolve easily
    • Ex: The people you were in Writing 120 with Freshman year
  • Usually, more people in the group means more secondary-like relationships
146
Q
  • Social Interaction
    • Define “Networks”
A
  • An established pattern of social relationships between individuals
147
Q
  • What is a “Social Group?”
    • name the 4 types of groups for the MCAT
A
  • two or more persons who interact with each other, share similar characteristics, and feel a sense of unity
    • Primary vs Secondary
    • In group vs Out group
148
Q
  • Define “Aggression”
A

is behavior intended to:

  • harm,
  • intimidate, or
  • inflict pain on

another individual or group

149
Q
  • Social Behavior
    • Name the 4 Attachment Types
    • What type is the most developmentally healthy form of attachment?
A
  1. Secure Attachment (most developmentally healthy)
  2. Ambivalent Attachment
  3. Avoidant Attachment
  4. Disorganized Attachment
150
Q

In Social Facilitation, what is a “simple task?” What about “complex task?”

A

Simple=tasks in which one is already relatively proficient (shooting free throws). Complex=tasks that are still new or difficult.

151
Q
  • Define “Altruism”
    • research indicates altruism can actually be…?
A
  • behavior by an individual or group that benefits another individual or group at its own expense
  • Research indicates that altruistic behavior can actually be selfish!
    • the person making the sacrifice anticipates a net benefit!
      • benefit can be recognition, prestige, or something else desired by the person
152
Q
  • Game Theory
    • What type of game does the Hawk-Dove game represent?
A
  • Non-zero sum games
153
Q
  • Theories of Emotional Expression
    • Describe the Basic (Darwinian) Model
A
  • asserts that emotional expression is universal and is expressed in similar ways across cultures
154
Q

Describe the OPTIMAL FORAGING THEORY

  • What does a foraging animal want to MAXIMIZE?
  • What does a foraging animal want to MINIMIZE?

​In the end, what’s the MAIN GOAL of foraging behavior?

A

IT’S ALL ABOUT OFFSPRING!

MAXIMIZE:

  • the amount of energy obtained per unit time

MINIMIZE:

  • the expended energy per unit time
  • …in order for any organism to increase their fitness they must increase the number of offspring they produce*
155
Q
  • A jury begins deliberation with 8 of 9 members supporting acquittal
  • One member INSISTS the defendant is guilty
  • After a long time, and a desire to end the deliberation, they ignore some evidence that supports the defendant, and vote unanimously to CONVICT

IS THIS AN EXAMPLE OF:

  • Groupthink
  • Group polarization, OR
  • BOTH?
A

GROUPTHINK: YES

GROUP POLARIZATION: NO

  • This is an example of groupthink
    • because rather than acting rationally, the members are acting to increase the cohesiveness of the group
  • Is NOT an example of Group polarization,
    • which involves making a MORE SEVERE DECISION as a group
      • …than one would as an individual

This situation ONLY involves swaying opinions from guilty ⇒ not guilty

  • In order to make this an example of group polarization we would need information stating that the individual members of the jury first thought the defendant should be given probation (milder decision)
    • …but after deliberation as a group, they decided the defendant should receive a twenty-year jail sentence