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Plato’s ideas about the soul

Dualist understanding. 2 separate entities.
Soul had the capacity to leave the physical body after death and move on after death to the WOForms.
Life and death come from eachother in an endless chain of rebirth.
Reason, appetite and emotion


And is Plato’s chariot thoughts

2 horses pulling a chariot. Reason is the charioteer, guiding and directing the viruses of appetite and emotion to stop running off wildly.
In MENO, Plato says an uneducated person such as slave boy can still work out the answers to geometry etc because their soul has encounter ideas beofre brith.


What is the myth of er

Plato describes the immortality and rebirth of souls. In Plato republic book. Tells a story of a man called Er which comes back from the dead and reports on everything he saw there.


What are aristotles ideas about the soul

Disagrees with Plato.
Soul was a substance. Essence.
The soul is that which gives a living thing its essence.
Soul is not distinct from the body, it is capacities that the body had to do whatever it is mean to do


What was aristotles analogy?

Shape of wax. The shape is inseparable from the wax, as is the body and soul


What is substance dualism

View that the mind and body are 2 distinct substances with 2 distinct sets of properties.
Body is material, has properties of extension etc. Mind and soul are immaterial and have properties of thought and emotion


What is a substance dualism

Rene Descartes


What does Descartes think about the soul

Process of hyperbolic scepticism. he could not be certain he had a body, but could be certain of our mind “I think therefore I am”.
Thought the mind and body must somehow be attached to eachother, perhaps through pineal gland , but he was hazy about how this worked
Possibility of life after death


What is property dualism

View that there is only one kind of substance, which is matter, but the matter can have 2 distinct kind of properties; physical and mental


What is emergent materialism

View that new properties emerge from physical matter as it becomes more complex. And the mind and body are different but not completely distinct.


Who is an emergent materialist

j S mill


What is reductive materialism?

Mind is not distinct from the body, but is identical with it
Mental states, eg fear and memory, correspond to different activities in the brain
Chemical reactions are the same thing as mental events
Materialism doesn’t allow for life after death


What does Gilbert ryle think about soul

Mind is not a distinct part of the body but an aspect of the way the body behaves, just as team spirit is an aspect of the way the cricket team behaves.
There is no “ghost in the machine” there is no non-physical “soul” in the matter of the body


What is ryles book

The concept of mind 1949


What does Dawkins think of the soul

Argues humans are entirely material.
Survival machines
Rejects the idea that we need to think to a supernatural souls if we are explaining what it means to be human
Platonic ideas of supernatural soul “soul one” and Aristotelian ideas of the soul as the essence of a lateral being being “soul 2”


What is Dawkins book?

The selfish gene 1976
Ricer out of Eden 1995


Criticisms of dualist approaches to the mind body problem

Our experiences of ourselves don’t seem to support a dualist approach.
We feel ourselves to be a unity. With mental and physical aspects, rather than 2 very separate substances
Dualist approaches can’t explain how the mind and body work together
Problem of other minds arises
Distinction between mental and physical properties


Possible criticism of materials approaches

The way we use language suggest that we feel ourselves to be more than just a physical body
Descartes observation that the mind and the body have different properties
Swinburne and ward argue that losing belief in the soul could have a damaging effect


Category error

A problem of language that arises when things are talking about as if they belong to one category when in fact they belong to another


C s Lewis quote

“You do not have a soul, you are a soul, you have a body”


Who is phineas Gage?

He had a accident and a metal rod passed through his brain. He survived, but had a whole personality change, he became an aggressive drunk.


What is the Theseus ship story

Each month, Theseus replaced an old plank of his ship with a brand new one. His ship had completely been replaced, is it still the same ship?


Prince and the cobbler story

They wake up in each other bodies. Cobbler was anxious to explain that he had not broken in, but because he had the appearance of the prince. No one understood what the problem was. John Locke used this to ask which person was which?


What is the duplicator gun?

Stephen law gives the following examples- suppose an alien had a duplicator gun? They make an exact replica of you. Which is the real you?


Where did Plato write his ideas of the soul?

Socrates claims that doing philosophy is a rehearsal for death.


What are the distinctions between the soul and the Body?

Body is physical matter, empirical world, interesting in the senses, distraction, a prison, have a body but you aren’t a body

Soul- simple, gain knowledge, true, eternal, death Is liberation for soul from body


What are Plato’s 2 arguments for dualism

The cycle of opposites
Arguments from knowledge


What is the cycle of opposites?

All qualities depend on the existence of their opposites or they would it exist at all.
Death must come from life and life after death
An endless chain of birth, death and rebirth


What is the argument of knowledge

Leaning is remembering, Plato believed the soul exists in a realm of forms before the body and hence can regain the knowledge that it has already known. We know what true equality is even though we have never seen it. Knowledge gained senses is a mere opinion.


What is the argument of affinity?

Plato believed that the body and an affinity with the earth and that the soul as an affinity with the eternal realm of the forms. Because the body is a composite, at death it is dispersed to the earth.